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Mr. OLIVER. If you get a 20 per cent increase in your appropriation on one item, I think you are doing pretty well.
Mr. WHITE. Did not the Librarian furnish you with a list of the number of books that should have been bound and that you were to able to bind for each year? I am not referring to the amount of money involved but the number of books.
Mr. GOMPERS. It varies.
Mr. GOMPERS. I think there were about 190 books in the last lor that we held over.
Mr. OLIVER. We want a discussion of the essential and nonessential factors, you understand.
Mr. GOM PERS. Of course, I want to say, Mr. Oliver, that every book that is ordered is passed on by the Librarian first. The order is sent up and passed upon by the chief clerk then passed on and approved by the head or acting head of the department. She doo not have the full authority to go ahead. Of course, it is impoe sible to go behind every order; however, she is called upon to a count once every so often as to why this book or that book is necessary.
MONDAY, DECEMBER 15, 1930
COMMISSIONERS OF CONCILIATION
STATEMENT OF HUGH L. KERWIN, DIRECTOR OF CONCILIATION
Mr. SHREVE. The next item is Commissioners of Conciliation.
To enable the Secretary of Labor to exercise the authority vested in him bg section 8 of the act creating the Department of Labor,
And so forth, $205,000.
ACTIVITIES OF BUREAU
you tell us how you have been getting along with that appropriation ?
Mr. KERWIN. The estimate for conciliation for the next fiscal year is the same amount as we are now receiving and have received for the previous two fiscal years and we are keeping within the limits o: the appropriation. We are glad to state that so far as serious trade disputes are concerned there are very few in the country. At the present time, while little notice is given to the work of
word conciliation because we do not court publicity, we have 50 labor disputes before the service for mediation. I have just checked over the records before I came here to-day. Of the 50 labor disputes submitted for adjustment 31 are listed as strikes while 19 are threatened strikes.
In the 19 cases work continues while our representatives are endeavoring to work out adjustments.
As a matter of interest, of the 31 strikes, 7 are in the building trades, 6 in the textile industry, 5 in the clothing industry, 5 in the
motion-picture industry, 2 in the bituminous-coal industry and 6 in iniscellaneous callings.
Of the 19 cases in which the plants are at work while our representatives are endeavoring to negotiate settlements, 5 are in the building trades, 5 in the metal trades, 2 motion pictures, 2 in engine rooms, 1 in clothing industry, and 4 miscellaneous.
The number of strikes and lockouts handled monthly averaged about the same as in recent years. One month may vary a little from the preceeding month. Sometimes a certain month may show a drop of 10 cases compared with the following month.
COMPARISON OF NUMBER OF CASES REFERRED TO AND ADJUSTED BY SERVICE
AND NUMBER OF WORKERS AFFECTED
Mr. SHREVE. Can you tell us about how many cases the conciliation service has utilized its good offices in during the last year?
Mr. KERWIN. Yes. Five hundred and fifty-seven cases were referred to the conciliation service last year,
Mr. SHREVE. About how many workers were involved?
Mr. KERWIN. Four hundred and one thousand five hundred and nine.
Mr. SHREVE. Can you tell us about how many of these cases were satisfactorily adjusted ?
Mr. KERWIN. With the cases remaining at the end of the preceding fiscal year which we carried into the last year-we adjusted 386 cases and we had pending at the close of the fiscal year 60 cases that were carried into this year, the latter being of recent origin.
Mr. TINKHAM. How does that compare with last year at the same date?
Mr. KERWIN. Last year we adjusted 385 cases and had 76 cases pending when we entered this fiscal year.
Mr. OLIVER. How many did you investigate the year before?
Gentlemen, I would like to say right here in connection with conciliation work, while our labors of recent years were devoted along the same lines as in previous years, that is to the prompt adjustment of strikes, if we can adjust them, every year we receive more and more requests from employers and employees to aid them in working out problems arising in their relationships. No record is made of this part of our work. There is no way that we can get any credit for it. So we do not record these cases at all.
Mr. GRIFFIN. Do the employers apply to you directly, going over the State bureaus of conciliation where such exist in their respective States?
Mr. KERWIN. Yes, frequently. At times, however, they notify the State and Federal services.
Mr. GRIFFIN. They come direct to the Federal authorities.
Mr. KERWIN. Yes. Our representatives cooperate with the mediators of State bureaus where they have them. It often occurs that some one away from the scene, a Federal representative away from the State and the local conditions is better able to look upon it in an impartial way than a local officer, and the local representative always has the local information and acquaintanceship that is very valuable.
Mr. GRIFFIN. And that probably motivates them in making the application to the Federal instrumentality instead of to the State!
Mr. KERWIN. Yes, sir. In many cases as soon as they have a strike they notify us directly. The State bureau also notifie E informing us when their representative will be available and where he can be located, and then we work together. They cooperatr IL their efforts and very successfully generally.
Mr. Griffix. You said that you only failed in 60-odd caves which your interposition was sought?
Mr. KERWIX. Sixty-six cases.
Mr. Kerwin. In some of the cases the plant was closed. In other cases the former workers secured other occupations and the manage ment eventually filled their plants with newcomers. In some instances, plants were consolidated with others. In a few instant they moved their plants to other localities. The hardest cases we handle are very often those in which comparatively few employees are involved, two or three hundred, often less.
Mr. Griffix. Were most of these cases that you speak of in that category?
Mr. KERWIX. Yes, sir; a lot of them were of this class.
Mr. GRIFFIN. What, in your opinion, was the basic reason for the failure of your efforts?
Mr. KERWIN. That is a hard question. It is a pretty difficult matter in many instances to get a joint conference arranged between the disputants especially if one of them is confident that he has the other one at a disadvantage. We can only use moral suasion counsel with the parties at interest and advise them, but if they do not want to go along, we can not force them to do so.
Mr. GRIFFIN. In some of those 66 cases that you mention, the failures were due to your inability to get the parties together!
Mr. KERWIN. Yes, sir.
Mr. Griffin. Either the employer or the employees took the high stand that they felt they were competent to handle the situatice themselves without your interference?
Mr. KERWIN. Yes, sir. The management would deal directly with their employees or the employees preferred to deal directly with the employers. Some employers argue that they can deal better with their own employees and do not desire any assistance. They submit their offer to the employees through the plant officials.
Mr. GRIFFIN. Take it or leave it.
Mr. KERWIN. On the other hand the employees often insist on their wage rates and labor conditions being accepted and a deadlock some times follows. In some of these particular cases we are called in again. These are very difficult cases, but there has been growing up in the country of late years a real desire upon the part of emplorers and employees to have some sort of collective bargaining arrange ment. The fact that both the great party platforms advocate colle tive bargaining has given great impetus to the movement. And both employers and employees are gradually coming to a realization that cooperation and good will is beneficial to both. Harmonious relationship is good business for all concerned.
MONDAY, DECEMBER 15, 1930.
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
STATEMENT OF ETHELBERT STEWART, COMMISSIONER OF LABOR
SALARIES AND EXPENSES
Mr. SHREVE. We will now take up the Bureau of Labor Statistics.
On page 427 we have some new language, “Salaries and expenses for personal services.” including temporary statistical clerks, stenog. raphers, and typewriters in the District of Columbia, and including also experts and temporary assistants for field service outside of the District of Columbia; traveling expenses, including expenses of attendance at meetings concerned with the work of the Bureau of Labor Statistics when incurred on the written authority of the Secretary of Labor; purchase of periodicals, documents, envelopes, price quotations, and reports and materials for reports, and bulletins of said bureau, $443,300, of which amount not to exceed $364,060 may be expended for the salary of the commissioner and other personal services in the District of Columbia.
The act approved July 7, 1930, provides as follows: That section 4 of the act entitled "An act to create a Department of Labor," approved March 4, 1913, is amended by adding at the end thereof the following new paragraph:
The Bureau of Labor Statistics shall also collect, collate, report, and publish at least once each month full and complete statistics of the volume of and changes in employment, as indicated by the number of persons employed, the total wages paid, and the total hours of employment, in the service of the Federal Government, the States and political subdivisions thereof, and in the following industries and their principal branches: (1) Manufacturing ; (2) inining, quarrying, and crude petroleum production; (3) building construction; (4) agriculture and lumbering; (5) transportation, communication, and other public utilities; (6) the retail and wholesale trades; and such other industries as the Secretary of Labor may deem it in the public interest to include. Such statistics shall be reported for all such industries and their principal branches throughout the United States and also by States and/or Federal reserve districts and by such smaller geographical subdivisions as the said Secretary may from time to time prescribe. The said Secretary is authorized to arrange with any Federal, State, or municipal bureau or other governmental agency for the collection of such statistics in such manner as he may deem satisfactory, and may assign special agents of the Department of Labor to any such bureau or agency to assist in such collection.
The Bureau of the Budget has given you $443,300, of which $364,060 might be spent in the District of Columbia. There is an estimate of $443,300, an increase of $83,000. Will you please tell us what you are going to do with that money?
Mr. STEWART. This bill was passed, approved July 7, 1930. It does not carry any appropriation.
Mr. SHREVE. This is a very large sum of money. On page 427 under the Bureau of Labor Statistics : Salaries and expenses, for personal services, including temporary statistical clerks, stenog. raphers, and typewriters in the District of Columbia, and including also experts and temporary assistants for field service outside of the District of Columbia; traveling expenses, including expenses
of attendance at meetings concerned with the work of the Bureau of Labor statistics when incurred on the written authority of the Secretary of Labor; purchase of periodicals, documents, envelopes
. price quotations, and reports and materials for reports and bulletins of said bureau, $143,300, of which amount not to exceed $361.00 may be expended for the salary of the commissioner and other per sonal services in the District of Columbia.
INCREASED ESTIMATES CAUSED BY NEW LEGISLATION
Mr. STEWART. Mr. Chairman, the increase very largely comes from the act of July 7 of which you spoke, which requires us to collect statistics, the volume and changes in employment as indicated by the number of persons employed, the total wages paid, and the total hours of employment. The hours of employment is an entirely new feature: " in the service of the Federal Government, the States and political subdivisions thereof” which is entirely new; “ and ip the following industries." There are two things in these enumerated industries that are new-building construction and building trades
. Unquestionably, Mr. Chairman, a volume of employment inder which leaves the building trades out is unsatisfactory. I have known that all of the time, but there is no industry that is going to be quite so expensive to secure. They add to this: “ agriculture and lumbering." Lumbering we already get. We can not get agriculture labor unless the Department of Agriculture will cooperate. We have requested the Agricultural Department to cooperate with us in securing that information.
Mr. SHREVE. Do you desire to say anything further?
Mr. STEWART. Another section of the bill which involves an er. pense is that such statistics shall be reported for all industries and their principal branches throughout the United States, also by States and/or Federal reserve districts and by such smaller geographical subdivisions as the Secretary from time to time may prescribe.
Mr. Chairman, we are publishing this information now by indus: try and by geographic districts in the broad sense. When we must break that down into States or Federal reserve districts and that sort of thing—and it says here" or municipalities ”-you not only double but you treble your costs.
Mr. SHREVE. But there is a saving clause here which provides that the Secretary may from time to time prescribe.
Mr. STEWART. I know about the Secretary prescribing. If that is in the law, the demand from the cities and States particularly that sort of information is going to increase until practically we will be obliged to do it. To a certain extent the question of employment i local. The banking interests in a State, for instance, are interested primarily in State conditions, and they are entitled to know. The merchant in St. Louis is not particularly interested in the boot and shoe industry as a whole; what he wants to know is the volume of em: ployment in the industry in St. Louis. He is entitled to know, and with this in the law he will force the issue.