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The brain is the principal agent, both in perception and voluntary motion. Its activity depends upon a fund of Calorique contained in its composition, which in every action it performs is exhausted, or discharged, under the form of sensible heat, steam or otherwise, until being reduced to a certain quantity, the ordinary inducements are no longer sufficient to call it into play. This is the sluggishness of fatigue. But although the active fund of the brain continue undiminished, yet if the ordinary inducements be removed to a certain extent, action, which depends both upon the fund and upon the inducements applied to it, becomes impaired, and the sluggishness of indolence is brought on. Either of these states are preparatory to that of sleep: but in what does sleep itself consist?

Before I can answer this question, I must call the attention of the reader to the anatomy and physiology of the brain.

There is a space intercepted between what anatomists call the dura and pia mater, which in a living healthy subject is filled with a subtle elastic fluid, exuding partly like other secretions from the blood vessels of the two surrounding skins, and partly formed of bases derived from another source. We may represent the brain as a kind of solid island floating in the elastic fluid above-mentioned, by which it is every where surrounded. The base of the brain then, or that part which looks towards the neck, rests as it were upon a stratum of this elastic fluid. Through this stratum pass all the nerves of the body, by the intervention of which the commerce between the brain and other parts of the body is carried on. When these nerves are excited, i.e. both vigorous and stimulated, the surrounding elastic fluid yields and leaves the nerves pervious.

But when either the sluggishness of indolence, or that of fatigue, takes place, the nerves being exhausted, or not stimulated, give less resistance to the surrounding fluid, which of course compresses the nerves, and renders them impervious. This is the state of sleep, which continues until either some violent stimulus being applied to the nerves, or their own elastic contents accumulating by degrees during sleep, the passage is again forced open, and the waking state restored.

POPULATION. A BSTRACT of the Answers and Returns made pursuant to an Act passed in the 41st year of his Majesty King George the Third, in so far as such Answers and Returns have been transmitted to his Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for the Home Departinent, up to the 26th day of June, 1801.

The returns are complete only for fourteen counties of England; the others are more or less so. But the counties of Buckingham, Monmouth, Southampton, and Sussex, were found too imperfect for insertion : indeed, above six hundred returns are wanting in the counties inserted. Of the returns for Wales two only are complete, and the other returns are still more imperfect than those for the counties of England. Six Welch counties were too imperfect for insertion, and above thirty returns are wanting in the counties inserted. The returns for Scotland are not due till the roth November next,

ENGLAND

ENGLAND.
Inhabited
Males.

Total of

Females.
Counties Names.
Houses.

Persons. Bedford

11,888 30,523 32,870 63,393 Berks

19,586 50,577 53,671 104.248 Puckingham....... Cambridge ...

14,193

39,604 40,503 80,112 Chester ...

34,169 91,948 98,138 190,086 Cornwall

32,204 87,933 96,064 183,994 Cinnberland

23,199 58,743 68,233 126,976 Derby ..........

31,892
79,401

81,746 161,147 Devon..........

57,955 157,331 185,756 342,087 Dorset ........

21,137 52,949 60,785 113,737 Durham........

27,447 15,449 86,217 161,666 Essex .........

38,407 | 111,465 115,173 226,638 Gloucester ...

41,951 106,186

121,869

228,355 Herelord......

15,143 39,099 40,144 79,243 Hertford .....

17,531 47,650 49,120 96,770 Huntingdon....

6,814 18,465 18,984 37,4419 Kent

41,617

145,787 151,438 297,225 Lancaster .......

101,723 283,246 | 395,465 588,711 Leicester .......

25,992 63,943 66,138 130,081 Lincoln........

39,310 97,242 100,279 197,521 Middlesex.......

112,755 373,327 444,383 817,710 Monmouth ...... Norfolk.........

47,699 129,965 143,664 273,629 Northampton ....

26,585 63,2176 68,154 151,430 Northuimberland.

27,578 76,223 87,245 163,468 Nottingham .....

25,256 65,508 68,219 153,727 Oxford .........

20,615 53,748 55,937 109,721 Rutland..........

3,266 7,950 8,350 · 16,300 Salop ..........

28,442 74,625 177,515 151,940 Somerset .......

33,984

88,454 101,763 190,223 Southampton...... Stafford

46,002 129,403 124,443 244,851 Suffolk ..........

31,659 99,627 107,521 207,148 Surry ...........

45,535 126,152 141,136 267,288 Sussex... Warwick.........

40,258 98,315 106,336 204,657 Westmoreland ......

8,014 20,573 21,814 42,387 W ilts .....

29,396 74,382 $2,888 157,970 Worcester...

26,309 66, 131 71,113 137,544 York, East Riding... 25,701 68,457 70,976 139,453

--- North Riding... 31,515 74,904 80,602 155,506 - West Riding .....

105,662 263,442

274,474 537,916 1,326,366 3,580,844 3,911,640 7,492,484

TOTAL OF PERSONS. Regular Forces, Fencibles, and Militia, on March 10, 1801......196,733 Artillery and Engineer Forces, ditto .....

11,618 Seamcn and Marines in the Royal Navy, ditto .....

Loyal Navy, ditto ................. 106,128 Marines at Head Quarters, ditto ........

.......... 20,151 Seamen employed under the Board of Customs, ditto ... Seamen employed in Registered Trading Vessels, ditto

143,661

469,188 GENERAL TOTALS. | Inhabited | Males. Females.

Total of Houses.

Persons. England ...............

| 1,326,366') 3,580,844 3,911,640 17,492,48.4 Wales ........

(52,978 120,712 135,177 255,889 Army, Navy, &C.......

469,188

469,188 1,379,314 4,170,744 | 4,046,8178,217,563

ACCOUNT

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ACCOUNT OF ALEXANDRIA.

WITH A PLAN.

TODERN Alexandria is a place of a small extent, scarcely containing six thousand inhabitants, but exceedingly commercial; which advantage it owes to its situation. It is built on the ground over which formerly the water of the grand harbour flowed, but which the retiring sea has now left dry. The mole, which was carried to the isles of Pharos, is now enlarged and become par: of the continent; and the island of Anti-Rhode is the centre of the new town; it is known by an eminence covered with ruins. The harbour of Kibutos is dry, and the canal that ran into it, from the lake Mareotis has disappeared, the very lake itself, on the borders of which the papyrus and date tree abounded, no longer exists; the Turks have neglected to repair the canals, through which the waters of the Nile flowed into it. Belon, a very accurate observer, who travelled Egypt some years after the Ottoman conquest, affirms that in his time the lake Mareotis was but half a league distant from the walls of Alexandria, and that it was surrounded by forests of palm-trees. The sands of Lybia are now where once these waters were ! To the destructive government of the Turks, must we attribute these deplorable changes.

The canal of Faoua, the only one which still runs to Alexandria, and without which it could no longer be a town, since it has not a drop of soft water, is half filled up with mud and sand. Under the govemment of the Romans, and even of the Arabs, it was na. vigable all the year, and fertilized the plains it traversed; its banks were shaded by date-trees, covered by vines, and embellished by pleasure-houses. The stream only flows now about the end of August, and there is scarcely sufficient time to fill the reservoirs and cisterns of the town; the lands it once made fruitful, are now become desolate, and the groves and gardens around Alexandria have disappeared, with the streams that watered them; a few trees only are seen without the walls, thinly scattered, of syca. more, fig, (the fruit of which is delicious) dates, the caper shrub, and the sauda or kali, which spread a partial verdure over burning. sands, the sight of which is insupportable.

Yet are not all tokens of the ancient magnificence of Alexandria effaced ; its cisterns vaulted with great art, which were built under all parts of the city, and its numerous aqueducts, are almost entire, though they have remained iwo thousand years. Towards the eastern part of the palace are the two obelisks vulgarly called Cleopatra's needles, of Thebaian stone, and containing numerous hieroglyphics. One is thrown down, broken, and covered with sand; the other still rests on its pedestal; each cut from one single stone, is about sixty feet high, and seven square at the base. Near the gate of Rosetia are five marble columns, in the place where the portiços of the gymnasium stood; the remainder of the colon· VOL. 2.20. 7.

pade

nade, the ranges of which a hundred years ago might be traced, has been destroyed by the barbarism of the Turks.

A column of red granite, standing a quarter of a league from the south gate, particularly attracts the attention of travellers. At a distance it is seen predominant over the city; and at sea serves as a signal for mariners.

Abulfeda calls it the column of Severus, and history informs us that this emperor visited Egypt, appointed a court of justice in the city of Alexandria, and deserved well of its inhabitants. Half a league south of the city is the descent into the Catacombs, the an. cie i asylum of the dead. Winding alleys lead to the subterranean caverns where thev were deposited. The suburb of Necro. polis extended thus far. Advancing towards the sea, is a large bason, hewn in the rock, which stands on the shore; two handsome apartments have been cut in the side of the bason, with banks crossing them; into these the sea water runs, as clear and transparent as crystal through a canal, dug with angular turnings to retain the sapd. This is vulgarly called Cleopatra's bath, and there are ruins which denote it was formerly embellished. We must not quit Alexandria without bringing some of those memorable things to recollection, which have happened in that city. Imagine you behold yonder mount near which Cæsar, firing the arsenal of the Alexandrians, consumed a part of the Ptolomaan library. At the entrance of this port, repulsed by his enemies, he threw himself, armed, into the waves, and, ever master of himself, foreseeing the numbers of the flying would presently sink his ship, swam to one more distant; his presence of mind saved him ; for his vessel, and all on board, were swallowed up. Beside these columns, melancholy mementos of the gymnasium, the haughty queen of Egypt, seated on a throne of gold, received in presence of the wondering world the title of wife to Antony, who there sacrificed fame to love.

REFERENCES TO THE PLAN. A. Rock, called the Diamond. | I. I. I. Scite of the Alexandria of B. on which the Pharos was the Arabs, with its 100 towers.

built, where there is at present K. Bab Raschid, gate of Roseila. ,
a castle.

L. Bab Scdra.
C. Mound, which joined the isle of M. Bab Elbahar, gate of the sca.

Pharos to the rock of the Pha N. The litte Pharos.
ros.

0. The promontory Lochias. D.D. D. Isle of Pharos.

P.P. P. Scite of the Palace of thre E. E. E. The great harbour, at present Piolemies. • the new port.

Q. Cleopatra's Needles. F.F. Harbour of Eunostus, at present R. Column of Alexander Severus. the old harbour.

S. S. Canal from ihe Nile to Alexa G. G. Scite of the harbour Kibotos." andria, H. H. Ground occupied by the Alex T. T. T. Scite of Lake Marcoles: andria of the Turks.

II U. Cleopatra's Bath.

DESCRIPTION OF POMPEY'S PILLAR.

WITH A PLATE.
From Norry's Account of the French Expedition to Egypt.

THE small number of admeasurements that have been hitherto. given of Pompey's Pillar, and those having been often indicated in the most uncertain manner by the different authors who have written upon il, citizens Duterive, Protin, Lepère, and myself, determined, before quilting cliexandria, to ascertain all its proportions. The commandant of the port, citizen Dumanoir, whom he had engaged to facilitate the means for this purpose, in causing to be prepared for us on board of his ship some slings and ropes, was anxious to second our views. On the 14th Fructidor, (31st Aug. 1798), at five o'clock in the morning, we repaired to that monument with an escort; we began our operation by flying a paper kite,* of about four feet in height, having a second cord of an indefinite length, fixed at the same place as the other string, and which was laid hold or by one of us, when the kite was passed above and beyond the capital; so that in drawing this cord the kite descended to the ground, and was then separated; we had then the cord passed over the capital of the column, in the manner of a cord passing over the circumference of a pulley. This first operation being finished, we fastened to one of the ends of that cord another still stronger, and to that again a third, capable of bear. ing more than the weight of a man. A sailor was hoisted up to the capital. He began by throwing down a flag of hammered iron, erected on that place in 1789, by Fauvel, a French artist; on that flag was marked the total height of the monument, namely, 88 feet 9 inches. When the sailor had fastened strongly the ropes about the volutes upon the angles, and carefully fixed a sling, I seated myself upon a small bench suspended to the rope, and was immediately hoisted up; citizen Protin ascended after me, and we measured together all the parts of the capital; in the mean time citizens Lepère and Dutertre took all the measures of the base and pedestal. We then took the total height, which corresponded to that of Fauvel within eight centimètres (three inches nearly), it being 28 mètres 73 certinètres (88 feet six inches). There only remained to measure the diameters of the column at different heights; in order to effect this, we had placed a square (plate, fig 2) of about five feet each arm, with a diagonal which moved in a groove, and divided the angle into two parts, and which could be pushed forward or drawn back at pleasure, so as to touch the circumference at each place where the square embraced horizonlally the shaft of the column; by means of which, in considering

* This means had been employed some years before.

the

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