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THOMAS H. HUXLEY'S WORKS.
Collected Essays.
Vol. 1. Method and Results.

2. Darwiniana.
3. Science and Education.
4. Science and Hebrew Tradition.
5. Science and Christian Tradition,
6. Hume.
7. Man's Place in Nature.
8. Discourses, Biological and Geological.
9. Evolution and Ethics, and Other

Essays.

12mo. Cloth, $1.25 per volume. The Crayfish:

An Introduction to the Study of Zoology.

With 82 Illustrations. 12mo. Cloth, $1.75. Manual of the Anatomy of Vertebrated

Animals. Illustrated. 12mo. Cloth, $2.50. Manual of the Anatomy of Invertebrated

Animals. Illustrated. 12mo. Cloth, $2.50
Physiography:

An Introduction to the Study of Nature. With
Illustrations and Colored Plates. 12mo. Cloth, $2.50.

New York: D. APPLETON & CO., 72 Fifth Avenuc.

ESSAYS

BY

THOMAS H. HUXLEY

NEW YORK
D. APPLETON AND COMPANY

1901.

Authorized Edition.

BIOLOGY LIBRARY

GIFT

PH31

1 Dat 78 lao/

B101001
LIBRARY

PREFACE

I HAVE entitled this volume “Darwiniana because the pieces republished in it either treat of the ancient doctrine of Evolution, rehabilitated and placed upon a sound scientific foundation, since and in consequence of, the publication of the “ Origin of Species ;” or they attempt to meet the more weighty of the unsparing criticisms with which that great work was visited for several years after its appearance; or they record the impression left by the personality of Mr. Darwin on one who had the privilege and the happiness of enjoying his friendship for some thirty years; or they endeavour to sum up his work and indicate its enduring influence on the course of scientific thought.

Those who take the trouble to read the first two essays, published in 1859 and 1860, will, I think, do me the justice to admit that my zeal to secure fair play for Mr. Darwin, did not drive me into the position of a mere advocate ; and that, while doing justice to the greatness of the argu

209

ment I did not fail to indicate its weak points. I have never seen any reason for departing from the position which I took up in these two essays; and the assertion which I sometimes meet with nowadays, that I have “recanted or changed my opinions about Mr. Darwin's views, is quite unintelligible to me.

As I have said in the seventh essay, the fact of evolution is to my mind sufficiently evidenced by palæontology; and I remain of the opinion expressed in the second, that until selective breeding is definitely proved to give rise to varieties infertile with one another, the logical foundation of the theory of natural selection is incomplete. We still remain

very

much in the dark about the causes of variation; the apparent inheritance of acquired characters in some cases; and the struggle for existence within the organism, which probably lies at the bottom of both of these phenomena.

Some apology is due to the reader for the reproduction of the “Lectures to Working Men” in their original state. They were taken down in shorthand by Mr. J. Aldous Mays, who requested me to allow him to print them. I was very

much pressed with work at the time; and, as I could not revise the reports, which I imagined, moreover, would be of little or no interest to

any
but

my auditors, I stipulated that a notice should be prefixed to that effect. This was done ; but it did not

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