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that the incomplete and—as far as certain of these forms are concerned — positively misleading statements in the existing standard treatises are responsible. In other cases I have felt bound to insist on certain points, obvious enough to a Frenchman, in the interests of English students.
Finally, it should be mentioned that no normalization of the orthography has been attempted in the citations from older French; in all cases the spelling of the various editions quoted has been adopted with the slight modification that consonantic i and u are replaced by the lettres ramistes j and v (as in modern spelling), and the acute accent placed on e whenever its insertion made for clearness.
There remains the pleasant task of thanking Professors T. F. Tout and James Tait of Owens College, whose kindly advice did much to encourage me in my task. Thanks are also due to Mr. E. E. Kellett, of the Leys School, for valuable suggestions, and to Mr. A. R. Ainsworth, of King's College, Cambridge, for reading through a large part of the proofs.
L. E. Kastner.
Manchester, March, 1903.
Position of the cesura in the line of fourteen syllables . 105 Position of the cesura in the so-called vers baifins, and