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and that hope is in a liberal Administration, ministration which will follow with cautious, but with constantly advancing steps, the progress of the public mind; which, by promptitude to redress practical grievances, will enable itself to oppose with authority and effect, the propositions of turbulent theorists; which by kindness and fairness in all its dealings with the People, will entitle itself to their confidence and esteem.

The state of England, at the present moment, bears a close resemblance to that of France at the time when Turgot was called to the head of affairs. Abuses were numerous; public burdens heavy; a spirit of innovation was abroad among the people. The philosophical Minister attempted to secure the ancient institutions, by amending them. The mild reforms which he projected, had they been carried into execution, would have conciliated the people, and saved from the most tremendous of all commotions the Church, the Aristocracy, and the Throne. But a crowd of narrow-minded nobles, ignorant of their own interest, though solicitous for nothing else, the Newcastles and the Salisburys of France, began to tremble for their oppressive franchises. Their clamours overpowered the mild good sense of a King who wanted only firmness to be the best of Sovereigns. The Minister was discarded for councillors more obsequious to the privileged orders; and the aristocracy and clergy exulted in their success.

Then came a new period of profusion and misrule. And then, swiftly, like an armed man, came poverty and dismay. The acclamation of the nobles, and the Te Deums of the church, grew fainter and fainter. The very courtiers_muttered disapprobation. The Ministers stammered out feeble and inconsistent counsels. But all other voices were soon drowned in one, which every moment waxed louder and more terrible, in the fierce and tumultuous roar of a great people, conscious of irresistible strength, maddened by intülerable wrongs, and sick of deferred hopes! That cry, so long stifled, now rose from every corner of France, made it -elf heard in the presence-chamber of her King, in the saloons of her nobles, and in the refectories of her luxurious priesthood. Then, at length, concessions were made which the subjects of Louis the Fourteenth would have thought it 'mpious even to desire, - which the most factious opponent

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of Louis the Fifteenth had never ventured to ask, which but a few years before, would have been received with ecsta sies of gratitude. But it was too late!

The imprisoned Genie of the Arabian Tales, during the early period of his confinement, promised wealth, empire, and supernatural powers to the man who should extricate him. But when he had waited long in vain, mad with rage at the continuance of his captivity, he vowed to destroy his deliverer without mercy! Such is the gratitude of nations exasperated by misgovernment to rulers who are slow to concede. The first use which they make of freedom is to avenge themselves on those who have been so slow to grant it.

Never was this disposition more remarkably displayed than at the period of which we speak. Abuses were swept away with unsparing severity. The royal prerogatives, the feudal privileges, the provincial distinctions, were sacrificed to the passions of the people. Every thing was given; and every thing was given in vain. Distrust and hatred were not to be thus eradicated from the minds of men who thought that they were not receiving favours but extorting rights; and that, if they deserved blame, it was not for their insensibility to tardy benefits, but for their forgetfulness of past oppres


What followed was the necessary consequence of such a state of feeling. The recollection of old grievances made the people suspicious and cruel. The fear of popular outrages produced emigrations, intrigues with foreign courts; and, finally, a general war. Then came the barbarity of fear; the triple despotism of the clubs, the committees, and the commune; the organized anarchy, the fanatical atheism, the scheming and far-sighted madness, the butcheries of the Chatelet, and the accursed marriages of the Loire. The whole property of the nation changed hands. Its best and

wisest citizens were banished or murdered. Dungeons were emptied by assassins as fast as they were filled by spies. Provinces were made desolate. Towns were unpeopled. Old things passed away. All things became new.

The paroxysm terminated. A singular train of events restored the house of Bourbon to the French throne. The exiles have returned. But they have returned as the few survivors of the deluge returned to a world in which they

could recognise nothing; in which the valleys had been raised, and the mountains depressed, and the courses of the rivers changed, -in which sand and sea-weed had covered the cultivated fields and the walls of imperial cities. They have returned to seek in vain, amidst the mouldering relics of a former system, and the fermenting elements of a new creation, the traces of any remembered object. The old boundaries are obliterated. The old laws are forgotten. The old titles have become laughing-stocks. The gravity of the parliaments, and the pomp of the hierarchy; the Doctors whose disputes agitated the Sorbonne, and the embroidered multitude whose footsteps wore out the marble pavements of Versailles, all have disappeared. The proud and volup tuous prelates who feasted on silver, and dozed amidst curtains of massy velvet, have been replaced by curates who undergo every drudgery and every humiliation for the wages of lackeys. To those gay and elegant nobles who studied military science as a fashionable accomplishment, and expected military rank as a part of their birthright, have succeeded men born in lofts and cellars; educated in the halfnaked ranks of the revolutionary armies, and raised by ferocious valour and self-taught skill, to dignities with which the coarseness of their manners and language forms a grotesque contrast. The government may amuse itself by playing at despotism, by reviving the names and aping the style of the old court -as Helenus in Epirus consoled himself for the lost magnificence of Troy, by calling his book Xanthus, and the entrance of his little capital the Scæan gate. But the law of entail is gone, and cannot be restored. The liberty of the press is established, and the feeble struggles of the Minister cannot permanently put it down. The Bastille is fallen, and can never more rise from its ruins. A few words, a few ceremonies, a few rhetorical topics, make up all that remains of that system which was founded so deeply by the policy of the house of Valois, and adorned so splendidly by the pride of Louis the Great.

Is this a romance? Or is it a faithful picture of what has lately been in a neighbouring land—of what may shortly be, within the borders of our own? Has the warning been given in vain ? Have our Mannerses and Clintons so soon forgotten the fate of houses as wealthy and as noble as their own? Have they forgotten how the tender and delicate

woman, the woman who would not set her foot on the earth for tenderness and delicateness, the idol of gilded drawing-rooms, the pole-star of crowded theatres, the standard of beauty, the arbitress of fashion, the patroness of genius,was compelled to exchange her luxurious and dignified ease for labour and dependence, the sighs of Dukes and the flattery of bowing Abbés for the insults of rude pupils and exacting mothers; - perhaps, even to draw an infamous and miserable subsistence from those charms which had been the glory of royal circles to sell for a morsel of bread her reluctant caresses and her haggard smiles to be turned over from a garret to a hospital, and from a hospital to a parish vault? Have they forgotten how the gallant and luxurious robleman, sprung from illustrious ancestors, marked out from his cradle for the highest honours of the State and of the army, impatient of all control, exquisitely sensible of the slightest affront, with all his high spirit, his polished manners, his voluptuous habits, was reduced to request, with tears in his eyes, credit for half-a-crown, to pass day after day in hearing the auxiliary verbs mis-recited, or the first page of Télémaque misconstrued, by petulent boys, who infested him with nicknames and caricatures, who mimicked his foreign accent, and laughed at his thread-bare coat? Have they forgotten all this? God grant that they may never remember it with unavailing self-accusation, when desolation shall have visited wealthier cities and fairer gardens; when Manchester shall be as Lyons, and Stowe as Chantilly; when he who now, in the pride of rank and opulence, sneers at what we have written in the bitter sincerity of our hearts, shall be thankful for a porringer of broth at the door of some Spanish convent, or shall implore some Italian money-lender to advance another pistole on his George!


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Abbé and abbot, difference between,
iii. 76.

Academy, character of its doctrines,
iii. 441.

Academy, French, (the), i. 23; has
been of no benefit to literature, 23;
its treatment of Corneille and Vol-
taire, 23, 24; the scene of the fiercest
animosities, 23.

Academy of the Floral Games, at
Toulouse, v. 436, 437.
Acting, Garrick's, quotation from

Fielding illustrative of, i. 332; the
true test of excellence in, 333.
Adam, Robert, court architect to
George III., vi. 41.

Addington, Henry, speaker of the
House of Commons, vi. 282; made
First Lord of the Treasury, 282;
his administration, 282, 284; cool-
ness between him and Pitt, 285,
286; their quarrel, 287; his resig-
nation, 290; v. 141, 142; raised to
the Peerage, vi. 293.
Addison, Joseph, review of Miss Ai-
kin's life of, v. 321-422; his char-
acter, 323, 324; sketch of his fa-
ther's life, 324, 325; his birth and
early life, 325-327; appointed to
a scholarship in Magdalene Col-
lege, Oxford, 327; his classical at-
tainments, 327-330; his Essay on
the Evidences of Christianity, 330;
his Latin poems, 331, 332; con-
tributes a preface to Dryden's
Gorgics, 335; his intention to take

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orders frustrated, 335; sent by the
government to the Continent, 338;
his introduction to Boileau, 340;
leaves Paris and proceeds to Ven-
ice, 344, 345; his residence in Italy,
345-350; composes his Epistle to
Montague (then Lord Halifax),
350; his prospects clouded by the
death of William III., 351; be-
comes tutor to a young English
traveller, 351; writes his Treatise
on Medals, 351; repairs to Hol-
land, 351; returns to England,
351; his cordial reception and in-
troduction into the Kit Cat Club,
351; his pecuniary difficulties, 352;
engaged by Godolphin to write a
poem in honour of Marlborough's
exploits, 354, 355; is appointed to
a Commissionership, 355; merits
of his "Campaign," 356; criticism
of his Travels in Italy, 329, 359;
his opera of Rosamond, 361; is
made Undersecretary of State, and
accompanies the Earl of Halifax to
Hanover, 361, 362; his election to
the House of Commons, 362; his
failure as a speaker, 362; his popu
larity and talents for conversation,
365-367; his timidity and con-
straint among strangers, 367; his fa-
vorite associates, 368-371; becomes
Chief Secretary for Ireland under
Wharton, 371; origination of the
Tatler, 373, 374; his characteri3-
tics as a writer, 373-378; compared
with Swift and Voltaire as a mas-
ter of the art of ridicule, 377, 379;
his pecuniary losses, 382, 383; loss
of his Secretaryship, 382; resigna-

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