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ends of siding and must be left up until after car is unloaded and disconnected. Signs must be of metal, at least 12 by 15 inches in size, and bear the words, "Stop-Tank Car Connected," or "StopMen at Work," the word "Stop" being in letters at least 4 inches high and other words in letters at least 2 inches high. The letters must be white on a blue background.
(c) Before manhole cover is removed, tank car must be relieved of all interior pressure by cooling tank with water or venting tank by raising safety valve or opening vent valve at short intervals. If venting to relieve pressure will cause a dangerous amount of vapor to collect outside the car, venting and unloading must be deferred until pressure is reduced by allowing the car to stand overnight or otherwise cooling the contents. These precautions are not necessary when car is equipped with a manhole cover which hinges inward or with an inner manhole cover which does not have to be removed to unload the car, and when pressure is relieved by piping vapor into a condenser or storage tank.
(d) After pressure is released, seal should be broken and manhole cover removed as follows:
(1) Screw type: Cover must be loosened by placing bar between manhole cover lug and knob. After two complete turns, so that vent openings are exposed, the operation must be stopped, and if there is any sound of escaping vapor, the cover must be again screwed down tightly and interior pressure relieved as prescribed in paragraph (c) of this section before again attempting to remove the cover.
(2) Hinged and bolted type: All nuts must be unscrewed one complete turn, after which same precautions as prescribed for screw type cover must be observed.
(3) Interior type: All dirt and cinders must be carefully removed from around cover before yoke is unscrewed.
(e) When car is unloaded through bottom outlet valve, manhole cover must be adjusted as follows:
(1) Screw type: Manhole cover must be put in place but not entirely screwed down, in order that air may enter tank through vent holes in threaded flange of cover.
(2) Hinged and bolted type: A small wooden block should be placed under one edge of cover.
(3) Interior type: Screw must be tightened up in yoke so that cover will be brought up within one-half inch of closed position.
(f) Where unloading through bottom outlet of cars equipped with interior manhole type of covers, and in all cases where unloading is done through the manhole (unless special covers are used, provided with safety-vent opening and tight connection for discharge outlet), the manhole must be protected against entrance of sparks or other sources of ignition of vapor by asbestos or metal cover or by being covered and surrounded with wet burlap. Burlap must be kept damp by replacement or the application of water as needed.
(g) Seals or other substances must not be thrown into the tank. Also, care must be taken to avoid spilling any of the contents over car or tank.
(h) Valve rod handle or control in dome must be operated a few times to see that outlet valve in bottom of tank is on its seat before valve cap is removed.
(i) Valve cap, or reducer when large outlet is to be used, must be removed with suitable wrench after set screws are loosened and a pail is placed in position to catch any liquid that may be in outlet chamber. If valve cap or reducer does not unscrew easily, it must be tapped lightly with mallet or wooden block in an upward direction. If leakage shows upon starting the removal, cap or reducer must not be entirely unscrewed, but sufficient threads must be left engaged and sufficient time allowed to permit escape of any accumulation of liquid in the outlet chamber. If leakage stops or initial rate of leakage diminishes materially, cap or reducer may be entirely removed. If initial rate of leakage continues, further efforts must be made to seat the outlet valve as per paragraph (h) of this section. If this fails, the cap or reducer must be screwed up tight and tank must be unloaded through the dome.
If it is found that outlet chamber is blocked with frozen liquid, careful examination must be made to detect cracks in the outlet chamber. If a crack is found, replace cap or reducer on outlet chamber and unload through the dome. If no crack is found, connection for unloading must be made and the outlet chamber must be wrapped with burlap or other rags and hot water or steam applied. (j) Unloading connections must be securely attached to bottom outlet and valve opened by operating valve rod handle or control in dome.
(k) Tank cars must not be allowed to stand with unloading connections attached after unloading is completed and employees must be in charge throughout the period of unloading, or while car is connected to unloading device.
(1) If necessary to discontinue unloading a tank car for any reason, the outlet valve must first be closed and the manhole cover and the outlet valve cap must be securely reapplied until unloading is resumed.
(m) After a tank car is unloaded, the manhole cover must be securely replaced by the use of a bar or wrench; the outlet-valve reducer and outlet-valve cap by the use of a wrench having a handle at least 48 inches long; and the outlet valve cap plug and end plug by the use of a suitable tool.
(n) Railroad defect cards must not be removed.
(o) Ground around connections must be covered with fresh dry sand or dirt, if oil or gasoline has been spilled previously.
(p) All tools and implements used in connection with unloading should be kept free from oil, dirt, and grit.
(q) After tank car is unloaded, all shipping cards and "Inflammable" placards must be removed from the car, except that "Inflammable" placards may be replaced by or covered by "Dangerous— Empty" placards prescribed in § 80.307; and railroad agent must be promptly notified that car is empty.*t [Par. 697]
80.299 Examination of tank cars with lighted lanterns. Many fatal accidents have resulted from using lanterns or lighted matches
*For statutory citation, see note to $80.1.
to examine the interior of empty tank cars or in using hot rivets to repair unsteamed tank cars, which may contain inflammable vapors even when the previous lading was not of flash point below 80° F. Only incandescent electric lights should be used for this examination. Fumes in any empty tank car are liable to be poisonous to the person entering it. In no case should an empty tank be entered without having another person stationed at the manhole.** [Par. 698]
80.300 Empty tank cars closed for transportation. Manhole covers, outlet-valve reducers, outlet-valve caps, outlet-valve cap plugs and end plugs, must be securely in their proper places on empty tank cars prior to being offered for movement or when transferred to or from connecting lines in interchange; except that heater coil inlet and outlet pipe caps or plugs may be left off and cocks left open for drainage. (See also § 80.298 (m).)*+ [Par. 699]
80.301 Charcoal fires in transit. When fire occurs in charcoal in transit, water should not be used if it is practicable to locate and remove the material on fire, since wet charcoal is much more liable to ignite spontaneously, and the fire can not be stopped permanently by the use of water. If fire occurs in ground charcoal or screenings, any material which has become wet in extinguishing fire must be removed from the car, and not reshipped; the remainder of the charcoal must be held under observation in a dry place for at least 5 days before forwarding.* [Par. 700]
80.302 Leaking packages of acid or poison, precautions. Whenever a car bearing the "Corrosive Liquid" placard is discovered in transit with packages in leaking condition, all unnecessary movement of the car must cease and at the first opportunity an examination must be made of the lading, and if practicable any broken or leaking packages of nitric or mixed acids should be removed promptly to prevent fire. Any acid or other corrosive liquid remaining on the car floor or on surrounding packages should be washed away with a plentiful supply of water, or if not available, cleaned up with a liberal application of sand or earth. Care should be exercised to prevent inhalation of gases liberated through the application of water; when employees are injured by acid or other corrosive liquid, the liquid should be washed off immediately by a liberal application of water.
Cars which have contained arsenic, arsenate of lead, sodium arsenate, calcium arsenate, Paris green, calcium cyanide, potassium cyanide, sodium cyanide, or other poisonous articles, which show any evidence of leakage from packages, must be thoroughly cleaned after unloading before cars are again placed in service.*+ [Par. 701]
80.303 Inspection of cars at interchange points. (a) Cars containing the more dangerous explosives named in § 80.268 (a) (1) which are offered by connecting lines must be carefully inspected by the receiving line on the outside, including the roof; and, if practicable, the lading must also be inspected. These cars must not be forwarded until all discovered violations have been corrected.
If the car shows evidence of, or if there is any reason to suspect that it has received, rough treatment, the lading must be inspected and placed in proper condition before the car is permitted to pro
*For statutory citation, see note to § 80.1.
ceed. When interchange occurs and inspection is necessary after daylight hours, electric flash lights should be provided. Naked lights must not be used.
(b) Shipments of explosives and other dangerous articles offered by connecting lines must comply with the regulations in Parts 72-80, and the revenue waybill, freight bill, manifest of lading, card waybill, switching order, transfer slip ticket, or other billing, must bear label notation and placard indorsement prescribed by § 80.271 (b) (1) to (d) (2).** [Par. 702]
80.304 Inspection of loaded tank cars. (a) Loaded tank cars tendered for shipment at originating and interchange points must be inspected by the carrier before acceptance to see that they are not leaking; that their manhole covers, outlet-valve reducers, outlet-valve caps, outlet-valve cap plugs, heater-coil inlet and outlet-pipe caps or plugs or cocks, end plugs, and plugs or caps of other openings are securely in their proper places; that the air and hand brakes, journal boxes and trucks are in proper condition for service; and that the tank and safety valves have been tested within limits prescribed by the specifications for tanks.
(b) Safety valves on tank cars must not be tested while these cars are loaded. Whenever test of safety valves or tank is due on a loaded car while in transit, unless the car is leaking or in a manifestly insecure condition, it must be forwarded to destination, carded on each side with a card exhibiting the following notice:
Prompt reports of such movements, showing initials and numbers of cars, must be made by the railroad carding the cars to the Bureau of Explosives, 30 Vesey Street, New York City.*+ [Par. 703]
80.305 In case of a wreck-(a) Precautions according to shipment. (1) In case of a wreck involving a car containing explosives, the first and most important precaution is to prevent fire. Before beginning to clear a wreck in which a car containing explosives is involved, all unbroken packages should be removed to a place of safety and as much of the broken packages as possible gathered up and likewise removed, and the rest saturated with water. Many explosives are readily fired by a blow or by the spark produced when two pieces of metal or a piece of metal and a stone come violently together. In clearing a wreck, therefore, care must be taken not to strike fire with tools, and in using the crane or locomotive to tear the wreckage in pieces the possibility of producing sparks must be considered. With most explosives thorough wetting with water practically removes all danger of explosion by spark or blow; but with the dynamites, wetting does not make them safe from blows. With all explosives, mixing with earth renders them safer from either fire, spark, or blow. In case fulminate has been scattered by a wreck, after the wreck has been cleared, the wet surface of the ground should be removed and, after saturating the area with fuel or lubricating oil, be replaced by fresh earth. If this is not done, when the ground and
*For statutory citation, see note to § 80.1.
fulminate become dry small explosions may occur when the mixed material is trodden on or struck.
(2) In case of a wreck involving a car containing chemical ammunition, every precaution must be taken to prevent fire and to prevent casualties due to gas leakage. Only those persons necessary to clear the wreckage shall be allowed in the vicinity of the wreck, and they should be cautioned to keep as much as possible on the side from which the wind is blowing.
(3) In case of a wreck involving shipment of liquefied chlorine gas in cylinders or in a tank car, the shipper, the nearest manufacturer of chlorine, and the Bureau of Explosives should be called upon for assistance. It should be remembered that, while chlorine is neither inflammable nor explosive, it is poisonous and has a very irritating odor. Owing to the poisonous and irritating nature of this material, all persons in the vicinity of a leaking container should keep to the windward of it, breathe as little of the fumes as possible, and endeavor to refrain from coughing. The leaking container should, if possible, be moved to a point where escaping vapor will be carried by the wind away from the railroad yard or right of way and adjacent occupied buildings. If the container can not be moved and is not leaking and the wreckage is on fire, every effort should be made to extinguish the fire. If the container is leaking, the fire will tend to vaporize the chlorine leakage and carry its fumes upward. The tanks of cars stenciled ARA Class V, ICC 105 and ICC 105A are insulated and equipped with safety valves for retarding changes in the temperature of lading and relieving interior pressures due to rise in temperature; and tanks of cars stenciled ICC 106A are equipped with safety devices which are adequate to care for temperature increases and their resulting interior pressures without rupture of tanks. If the wrecked container may be lifted, it should be moved to the lowest possible level and an effort should be made to prevent escape of liquid. Discharge of vapor under certain conditions will tend to refrigerate the remaining gaseous liquid and retard its loss. Liquid escaping in sufficient quantity should be drained into the lowest suitable depression in the ground and sprayed with water.
(b) Wrecked car containing inflammable freight. In case of a wreck involving a car containing packages of inflammable freight, it should be assumed that packages are broken and that leakage has occurred which may cause fire if lighted lanterns or other flames are taken into or near these cars. As much of the train as possible should be removed to a place of safety. A box car containing inflammable freight should be opened for ventilation and packages protected by red labels should be carefully removed to a safe place. Inflammable liquids spilled from broken packages or tank cars should be well covered with dry earth before a lighted lantern, torch, or an engine is used in the vicinity. Cylinders of compressed gases protected by red or green labels should also be removed, as they may be exploded if they are exposed to fire, struck a sharp blow, or dropped, and the flying fragments would then be dangerous. Tank cars used for the transportation of compressed gases are equipped with safety devices designed to prevent rupture of the tanks in a fire. Substances spilled