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XXXI.
THE UNITY OF THE HUMAN RACE–Continued.

As I mentioned in my last lecture, the classifications of the different races according to their supposed relationship will never coincide, if either the shape of the skull or the colour of the hair be exclusively considered. In the division of mankind into five races which at present obtains, and which Blumenbach first introduced, the physical and geographical conditions are considered in such a way that no one single factor becomes of importance. I will now give a short sketch of the five races, based on Burmeister's description, which varies from the ordinary classification by including the Malays in the Caucasian race, and thus not making them a separate race; while the aboriginal inhabitants of Australia are counted as a fifth race, and are not included in the Ethiopian race. I hope you will not overlook the frequency with which Burmeister, who opposes the theory of the unity of mankind, is obliged to mention differences in the same races, and resemblances between different races, —a clear proof that the different race types are not sharply defined, but connected by many intermediate stages. 1. The American races resemble one another much more than do the races which extend throughout all

the zones in other parts of the earth. It has almost become a proverb, says Morton, one of the men who knows most about the American races, that he who has seen one Indian tribe has seen all; to such an extent do the individuals of this race resemble one another, in spite of the large geographical extent and the extremely different climates of their land." In all there is seen the same long straight hair, the cinnamon coloured skin, the gloomy brow, the dull sleepy eye, the full tightly set lips, and the projecting but wide nose, to which characteristics we may add the projecting though rounded cheek-bones, the scanty beards of the men, the stature, rather broad at the shoulders, but lean and not very vigorous, and the comparatively small hands and feet. The form of the skull varies much. Although perhaps originally it everywhere approached nearest to the pyramidal type, yet the skulls of the Americans nowhere have the purely Mongolian shape, leaning rather towards special forms, sometimes oval, sometimes even elongated. These natural differences are much intensified by the artificial deformities which are caused by binding up or pressing the heads of new-born children, in the most widely different nations both in North and South America. The colour of the skin is reddish, according to Morton's description a cinnamon brown. This colour has not been produced by the custom which prevails in many tribes of painting the skin, but nature has been aided by art. No one who knows the manifold shades of colour in the Eastern races will wonder that the red

1. Cf. “Prince Maximilian zu Wied,” in the Verhandlungen des naturhist. Vereins, Bonn 1863, xx. Corr. p. 54. Peschel, Volkerkunde, p. 430.

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colour is not equally deep in all the nations. Indeed the differences of colour in Americans are very much less than in the Eastern nations. Americans are never black like Negroes, nor white like Europeans, they vary between a darker or lighter shade of cinnamon brown, which sometimes shades into copper colour, and sometimes more into red. Strange to say, the deepest shades are found in the northern and southern tribes, especially in the Californians and Patagonians, while the middle tribes, living almost under the Equator, are the lightest. Morton separates the Eskimos from the American races, and connects them with the Mongolian. Burmeister takes the same view, by reason of the large head, which is long at the back and flat at the forehead, the great breadth and flatness of the face, the small black eyes, the small round mouth, the tendency to fatness, which the Americans are entirely without, and the whiter skin. 2. The Mongolian race is connected with the American through the Eskimos. Its special characteristics are, a decidedly pyramidal form of skull, a broad flat face with a low forehead, small slanting eyes, high projecting cheek-bones, a powerful, rather projecting broad jaw, a scanty beard, and black straight hair like the Americans; a low, full stature inclined to corpulency, and a yellowish skin, sometimes inclining to brown and sometimes to white. The inhabitants of Middle and Eastern Asia, and probably the North polar tribes, belong to the Mongolian race. It is divided into several different groups, among which the Mongols proper, with the Kalmucks and Buriates of Central Asia, stand out as the most decided type of the race. The Chinese approach the Malay race in their bodily formation. The Japanese come next to the Chinese, and through them the Mongolian type is transferred to the inhabitants of the Aleutian and Kurile Islands, and from them it stretches on to the Eskimos, who form the transition to the American races. On the continent of Asia the Mongol tribes of the Kamtschadales, Tungusians, and Samoiedes spread as far as Europe, where they join the Tschudis and Lapps. The latter are by some included amongst the Mongol peoples, whereas Burmeister classes them amongst the Tartar Caucasian peoples, although he admits that a near relation exists between them and the neighbouring Mongol tribes. 3. The Caucasian race has an oval form of skull, usually a high rounded forehead, the back of the head round, large open eyes, straight teeth, a straight chin, a thick beard, and soft, smooth, or curly hair. The colour is more uncertain. In the purest Caucasian types, indeed, we find a reddish white skin, but very few nations preserve it ; in the southern nations of the Caucasian race, especially in the places where it approaches the negro races, the colour of the skin is brown, and is even sometimes so dark that it resembles that of some nations of the negro race. The colour of the hair and eyes harmonize generally speaking with that of the skin. Purely white Caucasians have mostly fair or reddish hair and blue eyes; in the more darkly coloured peoples we find brown hair, black hair with brown eyes, and lastly black eyes also. At this stage the resemblance to the (Malay) Southern Islands, or to certain Ethiopian nations, is unmistakeable.

The Caucasian race comprises the population of Europe, that of Africa on the coast of the Mediterranean, and that of Asia to the Eastern Highlands of Mongolia. Burmeister thinks that it is impossible to divide the Caucasian race according to colour or any other bodily characteristic, because of the great variations; he divides the West Caucasians according to speech into Indogerman, Semitic, and Berber races. The latter only exist in the scanty remnant of the Kabyles and Kopts; they attained their highest prosperity formerly in the old Egyptians. Their colour was darker than that of most of the Semitic and Indogermanic races, it was brown, even coppery, it seems to have somewhat resembled the colouring of the Hottentots; according to Herodotus their black hair was crisp, whereas examination of the mummies shows us straight hair. To these Western Caucasian tribes, Burmeister adds as Eastern portions of the Caucasian type, two tribes, which also have an oval form of skull: the Malays and the Scythians. The first are brown in colour, sometimes lighter than the Berbers, sometimes just as dark. Their bodies are gracefully formed, but generally not very large, roundish skulls, black straight hair, small eyes, noses broad at the base, and tolerably thick lips. These qualities cause them to resemble several Mongolian tribes, especially the Chinese. Blumenbach and others, as I have said, class the Malays as a separate race, but they make it include more peoples than does Burmeister. The latter divides the Malays into two such families, the Western and the Eastern. He calls the former the true Malays, and numbers among them the inhabitants of the Malacca peninsula, Sumatra,

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