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Two things are, however, still possible. (1) The different races of men have common ancestors, either one pair or several similar pairs. The differences in colour, shape of the skull, etc., have developed in the descendants of these ancestors. (2) Each race had special ancestors, who resembled each other in the points in which men resemble each other now, and differed in the points in which men differ from one another now.

According to the first assumption, the many intermediate stages in the forms of the skull and in the colour of the skin show us how a great part of mankind has gradually deviated from the primitive type. If the first ancestors were Caucasians, the Negroes would be farthest removed from them, and be connected with them by the countless intermediate types which have more or less of the pure Caucasian and the pure Negro type. On the other hand, according to the second assumption, the Negroes would be just as near to their own ancestors, the black Adam and the black Eve, as the Caucasians to theirs ; the races who do not purely

the buffalo ; not only is the colour and quality of the hair, and the size different, but every single bone, every single muscle is different also ; a difference which is so thorough that a practised eye can tell at once whether a single bone belongs to a horse or a donkey, an ox or a buffalo. Of course there are differences between the skulls of Negroes and of Europeans ; but they are not of the same kind as those between the skulls of a horse and a donkey; and any one who has tried to trace out the way in which the bones of animals belonging to any genus differ, will know that these differences are always more apparent and greater than the dissimilarities between the most different peoples of the earth. A common bond unites and runs through the human race, its presence always betrays humanity, and the intelligent observer can never be in doubt as to whether he has to do with a single species or only with the genus man, under which are included 100 species. This is at present still a scientific fact."— Burmeister, Geol. Bilder, i. 69.

represent either type, would he considered as degenerate, or as mongrels, in whom the original differences had been obliterated.

It is not necessary for our object that we should prove the second theory to be quite untenable and the first alone correct, considered in the light of comparative anthropology. It is quite sufficient if we can prove scientifically that the first theory is tenable, that the descent of the different existing races of men from the same or similar ancestors is possible, and that the origin of the present differences may be explained without the assumption of different ancestors. If this proof can be given, and this I shall try to do in my next lecture,—it cannot be asserted that the doctrine of the unity of mankind contradicts scientific anthropology.

XXXI.

THE UNITY OF THE HUMAN RACE-Continued.

As I mentioned in my last lecture, the classifications of the different races according to their supposed relationship will never coincide, if either the shape of the skull or the colour of the hair be exclusively considered. In the division of mankind into five races which at present obtains, and which Blumenbach first introduced, the physical and geographical conditions are considered in such a way that no one single factor becomes of importance. I will now give a short sketch of the five races, based on Burmeister's description, which varies from the ordinary classification by including the Malays in the Caucasian race, and thus not making them a separate race; while the aboriginal inhabitants of Australia are counted as a fifth race, and are not included in the Ethiopian race. I hope you will not overlook the frequency with which Burmeister, who opposes the theory of the unity of mankind, is obliged to mention differences in the same races, and resemblances between different races,

—a clear proof that the different race types are not sharply defined, but connected by many intermediate stages.

1. The American races resemble one another much more than do the races which extend throughout all

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the zones in other parts of the earth. It has almost become a proverb, says Morton, one of the men who knows most about the American races, that he who has seen one Indian tribe has seen all; to such an extent do the individuals of this race resemble one another, in spite of the large geographical extent and the extremely different climates of their land. In all there is seen the same long straight hair, the cinnamon coloured skin, the gloomy brow, the dull sleepy eye, the full tightly set lips, and the projecting but wide nose, to which characteristics we may add the projecting though rounded cheek-bones, the scanty beards of the men, the stature, rather broad at the shoulders, but lean and not very vigorous, and the comparatively small hands and feet. The form of the skull varies much. Although perhaps originally it everywhere approached nearest to the pyramidal type, yet the skulls of the Americans nowhere have the purely Mongolian shape, leaning rather towards special forms, sometimes oval, sometimes even elongated. These natural differences are much intensified by the artificial deformities which are caused by binding up or pressing the heads of new-born children, in the most widely different nations both in North and South America. The colour of the skin is reddish, according to Morton's description a cinnamon brown. This colour has not been produced by the custom which prevails in many tribes of painting the skin, but nature has been aided by art. No one who knows the manifold shades of colour in the Eastern races will wonder that the red

1 Cf. “Prince Maximilian zu Wied,” in the Verhandlungen des naturhist. Vereins, Bonn 1863, xx. Corr. p. 54. Peschel, Volkerkunde, p. 430.

colour is not equally deep in all the nations. Indeed the differences of colour in Americans are very much less than in the Eastern nations. Americans are never black like Negroes, nor white like Europeans, they vary between a darker or lighter shade of cinnamon brown, which sometimes shades into copper colour, and sometimes more into red. Strange to say, the deepest shades are found in the northern and southern tribes, especially in the Californians and Patagonians, while the middle tribes, living almost under the Equator, are the lightest. Morton separates the Eskimos from the American races, and connects them with the Mongolian. Burmeister takes the same view, by reason of the large head, which is long at the back and flat at the forehead, the great breadth and flatness of the face, the small black eyes, the small round mouth, the tendency to fatness, which the Americans are entirely without, and the whiter skin.

2. The Mongolian race is connected with the American through the Eskimos. Its special characteristics are, a decidedly pyramidal form of skull, a broad flat face with a low forehead, small slanting eyes, high projecting cheek-bones, a powerful, rather projecting broad jaw, a scanty beard, and black straight hair like the Americans ; a low, full stature inclined to corpulency, and a yellowish skin, sometimes inclining to brown and sometimes to white. The inhabitants of Middle and Eastern Asia, and probably the North polar tribes, belong to the Mongolian race. It is divided into several different groups, among which the Mongols proper, with the Kalmucks and Buriates of Central Asia, stand out as the most decided type of the race. The

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