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Chinese approach the Malay race in their bodily formation. The Japanese come next to the Chinese, and through them the Mongolian type is transferred to the inhabitants of the Aleutian and Kurile Islands, and from them it stretches on to the Eskimos, who form the transition to the American races. On the continent of Asia the Mongol tribes of the Kamtschadales, Tungusians, and Samoiedes spread as far as Europe, where they join the Tschudis and Lapps. The latter are by some included amongst the Mongol peoples, whereas Burmeister classes them amongst the Tartar Caucasian peoples, although he admits that a near relation exists between them and the neighbouring Mongol tribes.

3. The Caucasian race has an oval form of skull, usually a high rounded forehead, the back of the head round, large open eyes, straight teeth, a straight chin, a thick beard, and soft, smooth, or curly hair. The colour is more uncertain. In the purest Caucasian types, indeed, we find a reddish white skin, but very few nations preserve it ; in the southern nations of the Caucasian race, especially in the places where it approaches the negro races, the colour of the skin is brown, and is even sometimes so dark that it resembles that of some nations of the negro race. The colour of the hair and eyes harmonize generally speaking with that of the skin. Purely white Caucasians have mostly fair or reddish hair and blue eyes; in the more darkly coloured peoples we find brown hair, black hair with brown eyes, and lastly black eyes also. At this stage the resemblance to the (Malay) Southern Islands, or to certain Ethiopian nations, is unmistakeable.

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The Caucasian race comprises the population of Europe, that of Africa on the coast of the Mediterranean, and that of Asia to the Eastern Highlands of Mongolia. Burmeister thinks that it is impossible to divide the Caucasian race according to colour or any other bodily characteristic, because of the great variations; he divides the West Caucasians according to speech into Indogerman, Semitic, and Berber races. The latter only exist in the scanty remnant of the Kabyles and Kopts; they attained their highest prosperity formerly in the old Egyptians. Their colour was darker than that of most of the Semitic and Indogermanic races, it was brown, even coppery, it seems to have somewhat resembled the colouring of the Hottentots; according to Herodotus their black hair was crisp, whereas examination of the mummies shows us straight hair. To these Western Caucasian tribes, Burmeister adds as Eastern portions of the Caucasian type, two tribes, which also have an oval form of skull: the Malays and the Scythians. The first are brown in colour, sometimes lighter than the Berbers, sometimes just as dark. Their bodies are gracefully formed, but generally not very large, roundish skulls, black straight hair, small eyes, noses broad at the base, and tolerably thick lips. These qualities cause them to resemble several Mongolian tribes, especially the Chinese. Blumenbach and others, as I have said, class the Malays as a separate race, but they make it include more peoples than does Burmeister. The latter divides the Malays into two such families, the Western and the Eastern. He calls the former the true Malays, and numbers among them the inhabitants of the Malacca peninsula, Sumatra, Java, Borneo, the Phillippines and the Moluccas. The Eastern sub-family of the Malays comprises the inhabitants of New Zealand, and the farther Australian groups of islands. The inhabitants of the latter are more symmetrically formed, they are slenderer, stronger, and in particular more muscular, also browner than the Malay peoples.

The last tribe which Burmeister includes in the Cancasian race is the Scythian. In a few tribes of this people, the Turkomans and Turks, the human body is of a very perfect type, really rivalling the ideals of Greek perfection. But most of the people resemble in part Mongolian, in part Slav forms. To these belong in the east the Jakuts, in the west the Lapps and Finns,—the former are by some included amongst the Mongols,—in the centre the Tartars, Kirghiz, and Usbeks. A branch of the Scythian people, the Magyars, has pushed through the Slav races as far as Hungary.

4. Just as the last-mentioned Caucasian peoples bear a distinct relation to the Mongols, the nations of the Ethiopian race join on to the Caucasian Berbers through their likeness to them in bodily form and language. The general qualities of this fourth race are most completely developed in the negroes : black colour, woolly crisp hair, a narrow forehead, a short nose broad at the base, a projecting jaw, lips which are rather projecting and flat than thick, long arms with small hands, shorter legs with small calves and flat feet. To this race belong all the African peoples south of the Sahara. They are divided into three large families, the Negroes, Kaffirs, and Hottentots, also the Papuans on the Island groups north of New Holland. The actual Negroes are divided into numerous peoples with an elongated form of skull, but with a skin sometimes brown, sometimes deep black. The Kaffirs situated in Central Africa beyond the Equator, and on the east coast farther south up to Port Natal, are vigorous and of high stature ; their colour is not nut brown, but rather bronze brown or black, and they have a large nose with a high bridge, and a higher forehead than the negroes. There is something rather noble and European in their physiognomy. The Hottentots in Southern Africa have a light copper coloured skin, their bodies are smaller and more weakly built, they have remarkably small hands and feet, narrow, rather crooked eyes, and rounder skulls. In this they resemble the Mongolians. The Papuans, or Australian negroes, resemble the real negroes very nearly, but have longer, thicker hair, which is, however, woolly and crisp, and their skulls are round, not elongated, although they have preserved the projecting jaw of the true negroes. The forehead is higher than with the true negroes, and resembles the Kaffir type.

5. Whereas Blumenbach and others count the Malays as the fifth race, Burmeister makes out that the aboriginal inhabitants of Australia are the fifth race. They have the deep black skin, the small elongated form of skull, the projecting jaw, the thick lips, and the flat nose of the negro; but they are distinguished from the latter by their coarse, smooth, or slightly curly hair, which is not very long, and never woolly; and also by having remarkably large stomachs and remarkably slender limbs. These peoples, says Burmeister, remind us of the ape, the caricature of man. The physical and moral degradation of most of the tribes, their wanderings

VOL. II.

in the forests, their cannibalism, and the artificial deformities which they like, go far towards making this resemblance greater. The Australians are classed by others, together with the Papuans mentioned above, as one family of the Ethiopian race; and Burmeister's description has been shown by further investigations to have been very much exaggerated.'

Among other classifications I will only mention 0. Peschel's. He distinguishes seven races ; the first includes the Australians (New Hollanders), mentioned last by Burmeister ; the second the Australian and Asiatic Papuans; the third race, which he calls the “Mongol-like peoples,” includes the Malay tribes, the South-Eastern Asiatics (the inhabitants of Further India, Tibetians, and Chinese), the Coreans and Japanese, the Mongol tribes in the north of the Old World, the Behring tribes (Eskimos), and the American aborigines. The Drawida, or aborigines of Hindostan, are the fourth race, the fifth the Hottentots and Bushmen, the sixth the negroes. The seventh, the “midland” race, corresponds generally to the Caucasian. .

The great difference which exists between the classifications of different anthropologists shows plainly enough that a sharp separation of the races is not possible. “If it were easy,” says Peschel, “ to define the boundaries between the different races, anthropologists would not differ so much as they do now; when one thinks that mankind should be divided into two, and another into a hundred and fifty varieties, races, or families.”? Even if we put aside these ex

1 Corr. -blatt der deutschen Gesellschaft für Anthropol. Sept. 1881, p. 85. 2 Volkerkunde, p. 14.

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