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7.-REPORT OF MAJOR-GENERAL J. M. SCHOFIELD.
HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF WEST POINT,
UNITED STATES MILITARY ACADEMY,
West Point, N. Y., October 14, 1878. SIR : Since the date of my last annual report the staff of the Military Academy has suffered the loss of its oldest and most highly honored member, the venerable professor of mathematics, Albert E. Church. After nearly fifty years of great usefulness, with the respect and affection of all, this distinguished educator has passed away.
The chair made vacant by the death of Professor Church has been filled by the appointment of Professor Edgar W. Bass, who has entered upon his duties with the full confidence of his colleagues.
With this exception and that of the periodical changes of Army officers doing temporary duty at the academy, noted in the department returns, the Academic staff remains the same as at the date of my last report.
The changes introduced into the organization and administration of the institution, under the Revised Regulations of 1877, continue to give satisfactory results, and no reason has yet appeared for doubting the wisdom of those changes. A steady, though gradual, advancement of the Academy in its high standard of usefulness is confidently expected.
In my last report it was said, "The further development of the plan for reorganization of the Military Academy requires Congressional legislation.” The proposed revision of the statutes relative to the Academy had already been submitted. At the request of the joint commission of the two houses of Congress, charged with the subject of reorganization of the Army, this proposed revision has been submitted to that body, after having been slightly modified upon careful consideration of the views of the members of the Academic Board and others most interested in the highest welfare of the institution. I again respectfully invite the attention of the War Department and of Congress to this important subject, which it is not needful to further discuss.
The examinations of the present year have shown, not only highly satisfactory progress in the several classes of cadets, but also a gratifying improvement in the qualifications of candidates for admission. This latter is probably due to the more general competition for appointments among the young men of each Congressional district, and the increased care of members of Congress in making their nominations.
In view of the comparatively high standard of requirements for admission, high as compared with that which prevailed during the earlier periods of the Academy's history; of the provisions of law giving candidates, generally, a year in which to prepare for admission after receiving their appointments, and of the irreparable loss which a young cadet sustains in being absent from the military instruction of the first summer's encampment, including the disadvantages in studies arising from the necessary efforts during the autumn to recover what he has lost during the summer, it has become an important question whether September appointments should not be discontinued. This would diminish, in a considerable proportion, the number of candidates admitted for the first year, and in a less proportion for subsequent years. There would be a permanent small decrease in the annual number of graduates. I am not prepared to make any recommendation upon this subject at the present time. It should be considered in connection with the strength of the Army and the number of graduates which it may require, if that
is to be the standard by which the number of the corps of cadets is to be measured.
Another important question has been suggested as appropriate to be considered at this time, viz, whether a still further advance may not be made in the standard of admission to the Academy, resulting in a correspondingly advanced education of the graduates. Without discussing the question further, I think it may safely be asserted that the qualifications for admission to the Military Academy should be as high, at least, as the facilities for popular education throughout the country will justify; so that those young men only may hope for admission who have proved themselves capable of mastering the studies pursued in the public schools of the country to which all alike, whether poor or rich, have free access.
The sanitary condition of West Point is not satisfactory, and has not been for several years. Malarial fevers prevail to a great extent. This is believed to be due to defective drainage and inadequate supply of water. Sufficient money was appropriated at the last session of Congress to finish the system of sewers. The work is in progress, and will be completed as soon as possible. But no money was appropriated to increase the supply of water. Sewers without sufficient water may be a source of evil rather than a benefit. It is hoped the necessary appropriation for this purpose will no longer be withheld.
It is also respectfully urged that the amount necessary to complete the walls and roof of the hospital be appropriated this year. Preparations are now in progress to recommence work on that building under the appropriation of the last session of Congress. The work should be continued without further interruption, at least until the building is inclosed.
The estimates of appropriations required for the support of the Academy for the next fiscal year have already been submitted. They were based upon the necessary current expenses and such improvements as are of greatest importance. I am, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
J. M. SCHOFIELD, Major-General U.S.A., Superintendent Military Academy, Commanding. The ADJUTANT-GENERAL
U. S. Army, Washington, D. C.
8.-REPORT OF MAJOR-GENERAL MCDOWELL.
HEADQUARTERS DIVISION PACIFIC AND
October 24, 1878. SIR: Absence from duty at my headquarters at the time designated for sending you my annual report, and the failure at this date to hear from the general commanding the Department of the Columbia, prevent me from making this eport as full I wish, and will make it necessary to send you a further report as soon as I get one from General Howard.
DEPARTMENT OF ARIZONA. I inclose herewith the report of the department commander of the Department of Arizona, with the reports of his chief quartermaster, chief commissary of subsistence, chief paymaster, acting inspector-general, medical director, and engineer officer. From these it will be seen that the service in that department has been satisfactory, and that, notwithstanding the apprehension of danger caused by the taking away
(temporarily) of a large portion of the troops for service in the hostilities at the north, comparative quiet has been the rule in Arizona.
There is one question which I desire most earnestly to press on the attention of the proper authorities, and that is the condition of our heretofore allies and ever good friends, the Pima and Maricopa tribes of Indians.
These people live on the Gila River, just above its confluence with the Salinas. They cultivate the soil, are fixed in their homes, and have been prosperous, industrious, and always peaceful, except when serving in conjunction with the United States troops against the common enemy. They are now suffering, and are likely to suffer, from no act of their own, but by reason of the settlements of whites on the Gila, above their farms, and the diversion of the water they have heretofore been depending upon to irrigate their ground, for without water to irrigate the land will produce no grain. It will be seen that some of these Indians have been endeavoring to cultivate land over on the Salinas, which is but a few miles from their villages, and that their mere passing to and fro is looked upon . with disfavor by their white neighbors.
I ask that these Indians be granted an additional reservation on the Salinas (or Salt) River, and that measures be taken to secure them the rights they have, from time immemorial, had to sufficient water from the Gila to irrigate their land.
DEPARTMENT OF THE COLUMBIA.
I transmit herewith the following papers concerning this department and the Division of the Pacific, viz:
Annual report of the chief quartermaster.
A statement of the movement of troops to and from the department since my last report.
I also send copies of all the telegrams and orders issued in relation to the hostilities commenced at Big Camas Prairie, Idaho, last May, and which spread all over Idaho, Northern Nevada, and Oregon, commencing with the Bannocks, and involving the Pi-Utes, Snakes, and affecting the river tribes to the south of the Columbia River, and causing great anxiety for fear the trouble might extend to the larger tribes to the north of the Columbia.
I will, as I have before said, defer, till I get General Howard's report, going into the question of the movement of troops under his command.
In order to not have to call on the General of the Army for troops from the eastern commands—being warned not to do so save in an extremity-I sent to General Howard all the troops from the Department of California, save a handful at Alcatraz, and called on the Department of Arizona for every man that could be made available, even at the risk of having trouble in that department.
The campaign lasted till late in the summer; was a very fatiguing one, and caused much loss of life and property to the inhabitants, the troops, and the Indians. The latter have been subdued, and now await the action of the proper authorities as to their future. I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your most obedient servant,
IRVIN MCDOWELL, Major-General, Commanding Division and Department. The ADJUTANT-GENERAL,
Washington, D. C.
8 A.–Statement of movement of troops, Department of California.
DEPARTMENT OF CALIFORNIA.
At date of last annual report, October 17, 1877, the following-named companies belonging to the department, which were in the field with General Howard, operating against the hostile Nez Percé Indians, were assigned to stations as follows on their
Company D, First Cavalry, at the Presidio of San Francisco, Cal., arriving there and taking station October 25, 1877.
Company I, First Cavalry, at Camp Halleck, Nev., arriving there and taking station November 25, 1877.
Company C, First Cavalry, at Camp Bidwell, Cal., arriving there and taking station December 2, 1877, being a change of station from Camp McDermit, Nev.
Company B, Twelfth Infantry, at Angel Island, Cal., arriving there and taking station thereat on October 20, 1877.
Company F, Twelfth Infantry, at Angel Island, Cal., arriving there and taking statiou on October 20, 1877, being a change of station from Alcatraz Island.
Company L, Fourth Artillery, at Presidio, of San Francisco, Cal., arriving there and taking station November 7, 1877, being a change of station from Alcatraz Island.
Company C, Fourth Artillery, at the Presidio of San Francisco, Cal., arriving thereat and taking station November 7, 1877.
Company E, Fourth Artillery, was relieved from duty in the Department of the Columbia, and assigned to station at the Presidio of San Francisco, Cal., arriving there on November 7, 1877.
Company C, Twelfth Infantry, arrived at Angel Island, Cal., November 7, 1877, and assigned to station thereat, this changing its station from Fort Yuma, Cal., in Department of Arizona.
Company D, Twelfth Infantry, which was at Angel Island at date of last annual report, was assigned permanently to that station on October 18, 1877.
Company H, Eighth Infantry, Fort Yuma, Department of Arizona, on its arrival from the Department of the Columbia, was assigned to and took station at San Diego Barracks, Department of Arizona, on November 17, 1877, thus changing its station from Fort Yuna, Cal.
Company B, of the Twelfth Infantry, left Angel Island, Cal., November 2, 1877, en route to Benicia Barracks, Cal., arriving thereat, and taking station same day.
Company K, Twelfth Infantry, lett Angel Island, Cal., on November 9, 1877, en route to Benicia Barracks, Cal., arriving thereat, and taking station November 9, 1877, On October 18, 1877, the post of Fort Yuma being without troops by the withdrawal of Company K, Twelfth Infantry, to Angel Island in July, 1877, it was placed in charge of the commanding officer of Benicia Barracks, Cal., with instructions to station thereat one commissioned officer, three non-commissioned officers, and nine privates, to be relieved periodically on his recommendation.
After the above-enumerated changes were accomplished, the posts in the department were garrisoned as follows:
Alcatraz Island.—Companies H and K, Fourth Artillery,
Presidio of San Francisco.—Headquarters and Companies C, E, and L, and Battery B, Fourth Artillery, and Company D, First Cavalry.
Yerba Buena Island.-Detachment Twelfth Infantry.
Under General Orders No. 3, Headquarters of the Army, Adjutant-General's Office, February 6, 1878, directing the interchange of the Eighth and Twelfth Regiments of Infantry, the regimental staff and band of the Twelfth Infantry left Angel Island, Cal., March 8, 1878, en route to Prescott, Ariz., and the regimental staff and band of the Eighth Infantry arrived and took station at Angel Island, Cal., on March 21, 1878.
To comply with requirements of General Orders No. 42, Headquarters of the Army, Adjutant-General's Office, of June 26, 1878, establishing the hea quarters of divisions and department at military posts, the headquarters of this department was established at the Presidio of San Francisco, and to effect accommodations for same the headquarters of the Fourth Artillery was on Jime 27, 1878, transferred to Angel Island, Cal., and the hea quarters of the Eighth Infantry transferred on same day from Augel Island to Benicia Barracks.
Hostilities with the Bannock Indians having broken out in the Department of the Columbia, the following designated companies were placed under General Howard's orders and sent to join his command, as follows:
Coinpany D, First Cavalry, left the Presidio of San Francisco, Cal., on June 4, 1878. en route to Kelton, Utah, and Company I, First Cavalry, left Camp Halleck on same day en route to Kelton, thence to march under command of Major Geo. B. Sanford, First Cavalry, to Camas Prairie, Idaho, and report to General Howard for orders.
Companies B and K, Twelfth Infantry, left Benicia Barracks on June 8, 1878, en route to Camp McDermit, Nev., under command of Capt. H. C. Egbert, Twelfth Infantry, thence to communicate with and join command under Major Sanford or Captain Bernard. Company C, First Cavalry, was directed by telegraph on June 8, 1878, to proceed without delay, equipped for field service, to Camp McDerinit, Nev., against Bannock Indians. The company left Camp Bidwell, June 17, 1878.
Companies C, D, and F, Twelfth Infantry, left Angel Island, June 8, 1878, en route to Elko, Nev., under command of Capt. Thomas Byrne, Twelfth Infantry, for campaign service against Bannock Indians.
Company H, Eighth Infantry, left San Diego Barracks on June 15, 1878, equipped for field service, en route to Sheep Ranche, Oreg., to join General Howard's com-mand. On June 10, 1878, Capt. H. C. Egbert, Twelfth Infantry, was directed by telegraph to assume command of the battalion of the Twelfth Infantry, consisting of Companies B, C, D, F, and K, at Carlin, Nev., and proceed northward through Cornucopia to Duck Valley, Idaho.
Representations having been made by the Central Pacific Railroad authorities that a large force of Indians was threatening the railroad, the commanding officer of Camp Halleck was directed by telegraph on June 8, 1878, to send as large a detachment from his post as could be spared to patrol railroad from Carliu to Tulasco. Detachment continued on this duty until June 12. Companies H and K, Fourth Artillery, left Alcatraz Island on June 12, 1878, equipped for tield service, en route to Winnemucca, Nev., under command of Capt. John Egan, Fourth Artillery. The post of Alcatraz Island being left without troops by the withdrawal of Companies H and K, Fourth Artillery, Companies C and L of the same regiment were sent from Presidio of San Francisco to garrison it on June 12, 1878. Battery B, Fourth Artillery, at the Presidio of San Francisco, equipped as cavalry, and Company E of same regiment-Presidioand part of Company F, from Point San José, imder command of Capt. Marcus P. Miller, Fourth Artillery left their stations ou June 24, 1878, en route to Wimemucca, Nev.
On June 27, 1878, Captain Miller was directed to proceed with his command to Camp McDermit.
Companies B and K, Eighth Infantry, having arrived at the Presidio of San Francisco, under telegraphic instructions from division headqnarters, were directed on July 2, 1877, to proceed to the l'pper Columbia River via Portland, Oreg., under command of Capt. William S. Worth, Eighth Infantry: Command left Presidio July 3. On July 5, 1878, Companies H and K, Fourth Artillery, Company H, Eighth Infantry, and Company. I, Twelfth Infantry, at Camp McDermit, Ner., were directed to proceed by forced marches to Winnemucca, Nev., and thence by rail to San Francisco. On July 10, 1878, the above command, together with Company C, Eighth Infantry, which had arrived at Presidio of San Francisco under telegraphic instructiors from division headquarters, left San Francisco for Portlaud, Oreg., under command of Maj. Henry R. Mizner, Eighth Infantry.
On July 5, 1878, the commanding officer of Fort Yuma, Cal., was directed to send the detachment of Companies B and K, Twelfth Infantry, on duty at that post, to Fort Boise, Idaho, via Winnemucca, Nev.
On July 17, 1878, Capt. E. F. Thompson, Twelfth Infantry, left San Francisco, Cal., in command of detachments of his and Companies H and K, Fourth Artillery, en route to Fort Vancouver, Wash.
Company A, Eighth Infantry, having arrived at Fort Yuma, Cal., was directed on July 26, 1878, to proceed immediately by rail to Winnemucra and thence by marches to Camp McDermitt, Nev. On Augnst 3, 1878. Companies D and I, Eighth Infantry, en route to Fort Yuma, Cal., were directed to proceed immediately on their arrival at Fort Yuma by rail to Winnemucca, Nev., and thence by marches to Camp McDermit, Ser.
On August 5, 1877, Capt. C. M. Bailey, Eighth Infantry, commanding Companies D and I of that regiment at Winnemucca, Nev., was ordered to send a guard of ten men of his command to Cornucopia, Nev., thence to escort a supply train to Sheep Ranch, Oreg.
Of the companies ordered from these headquarters to participate in the expedition against the hostile Bannocks and Pi-l'tes, namely, Companies C, D, and I, First Cavairy; Battery B, Companies E, F, H, and K, Fourth Artillery; Companies B, C, D, F, I. and K, Twelfth Infantry; Companies A, B, C, D, H, I, and K, Eighth Infantry, the following have returned, and are stationed as follows: Battery B, Fourth Artillery, Presidio of San Franci: co.