« 이전계속 »
believe that our neighbors are acting in good faith. But if vigilance shall be so far relaxed, on the other side, that our inhabitants shall suffer from incursions, or even if the Indians should escape from the Mexican troops into our territory, the interests of civilization may demand a temporary suspension of the order named, and that the common enemy be followed in the heat of pursuit across the border.
SAN CARLOS INDIANS.
It has been taken for granted that any Indians leaving the San Carlos Reservation without authority are on hostile intents, and therefore to be treated as enemies. Passes for hunting, and even for labor, are granted by the agent to small numbers at a time. Beyond this it is not safe for him to proceed, nor for the military, duly watchful over the lives and property of citizens, to allow. Scouting has therefore been kept up from the surrounding posts of Verde, McDowell, and Apache.
In the month of April, Captain Porter, Eighth Infantry, with Com. pany B, Indian scouts, and soldiers from Camp Verde, struck a band of Apaches commanded by Miraha, killed seven warriors, and totally destroyed his camp and property.
In the month of July, Agent Hart, at San Carlos, reported that he was out of all rations, save one week's supply of beef, and that he apprehended serious trouble. I immediately took the serious responsibility to order the commissary department to transfer to Mr. Hart 14,000 pounds flour as a loan or sale until he could either replace or pay for the amount. This step, together with the active co-operation of the governor of the Territory and the division commander in aiding the agent to procure the necessary funds, was the means of preventing trouble-possibly war itself.
As regards the transfer of the rations I consider the act justifiable under the circumstances under a letter of the Adjutant-General, dated September 30, 1873, and addressed to the Commanding General Military Division of the Missouri, and as an alternative from a still more costly remedy, viz: declaring the whole body of Indians-some 4,500—as prisoners of war and feeding them as such. Of course the old question comes up, after depriving the Indian of his lands proper and means of subsistence, at what point in his subsequent career of starvation, misery, and desperation shall you regard him as a public enemy. For it is only at some such point that the military can come in without being regarded as an intruder. It would be better if the commanding officer of a department had an unquestionable right by law to incur a little expense in order to save a much greater, and to prevent a war, if one only knew how to frame the law. In this case there was an appropriation (though the money was delayed). But the contingency frequently arises when for want of appropriation an officer foresees a war without means to avoid it; finally the storm bursts, and not till after bloodshed, is the military power available, perhaps too late, to correct an enormous evil at enormous outlay, which was clearly forseen and might have been prevented at little expense. In this case Agent Hart paid for the flour as soon as funds were received by him, and there was no loss to the subsistence department.
The Hualapais remain in their ancient country, which, howerer, is being settled by the whites, miners, and ranchmen, among whom the feeling is growing that these Indians should be removed.
There are some Pimas on Salt River engaged in peaceful cultivation
of the soil by irrigation, part of their lands on the Gila, having been abadoned for the want of water. The body of the tribe dwell on the Gila, and in going to their fields on the Salt River pass over the fields of white men giving rise to suspicion of cattle stealing and to threats of vengeance, but no authentic reports have reached me. These Indians have been the stanch friends of Americans from the time of the acquisition of Arizona, and the common interests of all requires that their relations with the settlers be guarded by a diligent, watchful, firm, and judicious agent.
The Colorado River Indians have given the military authorities no trouble beyond one or two scares which had little foundation in fact. But their condition has been deplorable from the want of food and the rarages of the small-pox.
There is a large number of red men in the department, not thought to be less than 17,000 and believed to be 20,000. The white population is sparse and small, though growing steadily. These people are sensitive of danger, and the moral effect of keeping troops enough for any emergency is a matter of considerable importance to the settlement of the country and development of its magnificent resources. Any part of the troops moved out causes a vibration of alarm, makes the Indians arrogant, and lets loose the horse-thieves and mail-robbers on the desert.
QUARTERMASTER'S AND SUBSISTENCE DEPARTMENT.
The transportation in this department is poor, but notwithstanding the slow conveyance, and in many cases, tardy delivery, of supplies, due to the rough character and great length of the roads over which they are hauled to the posts by contract, the troops have been well fed by the subsistence department. Where there has been a lack at one post it has been promptly made up by transfers from others, though at increased expense. The quality of the local four is constantly improving so that increased quantities are being purchased within the limits of the Territory of Arizona, and in all respects, whenever suitable to the wants of the troops, local products have been preferred.
Great delays of transportation from the east through New Mexico has led to the abandonment of that route for the San Francisco route, which is the best for all posts in this department, except Camp Apache.
The attention of the major-general commanding the division, is respectfully invited to the remarks of the chief commissary of subsistence of the department on the circumstances attending the transmission of contracts to the division commander for his approval.
Owing to our remoteness from other lines and to the distances between posts, the Military Telegraph Line has been of great service in this department. But, constructed as it was with the inaterials at hand, and not generally the best, the line has worked imperfectly. The SignalService officer is active in repairs, and better material is now being supplied with the aid of the Quartermaster's Department; but this aid taxes that department heavily, and it is respectfully suggested that more efficient co-operation and economy might be better secured by the presence in the Territory of a signal officer, and by the organization of the line in sections with a signal sergeant or other responsible employé in charge of each section. The distance from the San Diego office, where the sig. nal officer is now stationed, to these headquarters, along the line, is over
500 miles; to Camp Grant, nearly 600 miles; and to Camp Apache, about 700 miles.
The whole line is under one superintendent, and he is stationed 200 miles outside of military operations in Arizona, and at the extreme end of the line.
TROOPS AND POSTS.
The discipline of the troops has been good, their spirit excellent, their instruction fair and improving under the increased attention paid to drills and target practice, all that could be done under the weight of labor imposed by the smallness of the garrisons. The curtailing of extra-duty pay at one period of the year was borne with admirable patience by some of the men in the ranks performing such duties, while its general effect was hurtful. With all their regular garrison labors nearly one-half of the troops have been kept out on scouting duty most of the time, and a considerable number at work on the telegraph-line.
I respectfully recommend that the companies of the Twelfth Infantry be filled to a maximum of at least 50 men each. I think the increase of garrisons by such means would result not only in more efficiency, but be economical and diminish the number of desertions.
It has been my wish to reduce the number of posts, but it cannot be done yet, nor until the question is settled whether the temporary camps at Thomas, Huachuca, and Supply are to be kept up. Even Camp Lowell and Fort Yuma, which it was hoped might be discontinued, have become more important as depots and for staff-officers' quarters, according to law. The summer season has been marked by floods and winds, which have made havoc at some of the posts, calling for extensive repairs.
This department has been engaged in the construction of public roads, making accurate maps of the Territory, founded upon reconnais. sances from the different posts, and other needed work. Lieut. E. D. Thomas, Fifth Cavalry, acting engineer officer for last fiscal year up to May 13, 1878, has been called upon for report, but his whereabouts are unknown as yet, and no report has been rendered. It will be forwarded as soon as received.
Taking into consideration the number of scouting parties and the climatic exposures of troops in camp and on the march, more medical otticers are needed than the usual established posts and camps would seem to call for. Frequent changes are necessary, and so far there has been more demand for this indispensable class of officers than could be always supplied.
Attention is respectfully invited to the remarks of the acting assistant inspector-general, whose report, together with those of all the chief's of staff departments, are herewith forwarded. I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
0. B. WILLCOX, Colonel Twelfth Infantry, Brt. Maj. Gen. (assigned),
Commanding Department. ASSISTANT ADJUTANT-GENERAL,
Military Division of the Pacific, Presidio of San Francisco, Cal.
G.–REPORT OF THE COMMANDING OFFICER OF THE AR
HEADQUARTERS UNITED STATES ARTILLERY SCHOOL,
Fort Monroe, Virginia, November 4, 1878. In pursuance of the requirements of the programme of instruction and code of regulations of the United States Artillery School which were approved by the General-in-Chief April 10, 1878, I have the honor to submit the following report on its progress and wants :
I assumed command on the 1st of March, 1877, in obedience to the order promulgated in Special Orders No. 32 of 1877, from Headquarters of the Army, relieving Col. W. F. Barry, Second Artillery, to whose care the conduct and development of the school had been committed in 1867.
To give an account of the inception of the school, which had steadily progressed to the standard of efficiency at which I found it, is precluded by want of space. It is understood, however, in reference to the object to be attained in its establishment, that the influence and importance of the part which is demanded from artillery, the diversity of object and manner of employment in modern warfare, and the extraordinary and scientific progress which has been made in artillery materiel, together with the many different kinds of guns and the different modes of serving them, have necessitated a special instruction for men, and rendered careful study and a thorough acquaintanceship with many kindred subjects, in addition, imperative upon officers.
It will be seen by reference to General Orders No. 99 of 1867, and No. 89 of 1875, Headquarters of the Army, Adjutant-General's Office, that the course of instruction was at first limited to one, and subsequently extended to two years, and that at the time of my succession to the command of the school the first term of two years was nearly completed by the detail of officers then under instruction.
This, however, was the fact only so far as time is concerned, for the exigencies of the public service had demanded the withdrawal of the instructive-batteries from the school in October, 1876, and a consequent suspension of school-duties from that time until the 12th of February, 1877, when the course was resumed and an attempt made to render it as complete (in accordance with the programme of instruction then in force) as possible, notwithstanding the lost time.
A reference to this programme of instruction (1876), which is appended and marked "A," will enable the departures therefrom, which are cited in the various reports of the instructors, to be understood, and at the same time will impart a knowledge of the system of the school during the first term on the two years basis, which system it became my aim to enforce without material change.
Studies in the various branches of instruction were therefore carried on until the end of the term, quite in accordance with this programme, the only departure (in my administration) being an extension of the time so allotted to include the month of June, 1877, which was devoted to studies in artillery and engineering. This action was advised by the staff of the school, and duly approved by the General-in-Chief.
The character and progress of the instruction so given is set forth in the reports of the instructors hereto appended (C and D).
It will be seen that at this time the school was carried on, in so far as the instruction appertained to studies and recitations, under the several divisions of artillery, engineering, law, and military history.
The last two subjects were taken up in October, 1877, and were concluded without change (Appendix E and F).
Practical instruction was not so fortunately removed from interruption, for in July, 1877, the command was again called upon for service elsewhere on account of the labor riots. This caused another cessation of school-duties and the absence of the major portion of the command (including myself) for about a month. With this exception, practical exercises in artillery (drill) were steadily pursued as laid down in the programme, and an account of which is given in detail in the appended report of the superintendent of that branch (Appendix B).
Firing-practice was carried out as had been prescribed, the methods of observation and record remaining the same as had been pursued in previous years. This was but little in advance of what could be undertaken at alınost any artillery station, owing to the lack of proper instruments and the great imperfection of those at hand; still this practice was instructive because of the untiring care and zeal of those in charge of it, and the hearty co-operation of those who were under instruction.
These imperfections, as well as others, appearing in other branches of instruction, induced me to make application for better apparatus, and I was gratitied by a hearty and favorable response from the War Department, so that the firing of the succeeding fall was undertaken under more favorable auspices.
For purposes of instruction, and the proper rendition of drawings, returns, &c., by the officers attending the school, the instructors in artillery and engineering were, in September, 1877, placed in charge of that portion of the practice, while the instructor in signaling had charge of that specialty as connected therewith. The several functions of these officers were under the supervision and direction of the superintendent of artillery instruction. The results of this method (shown in detail in Appendix B) were most gratifying, while the record of each shot was full, complete, and reliable.
I am happy to be in a position to state that this step is to be regarded as one of great length in the path of progress and utility, and that it shall be my endeavor to develop such work to earn a higher standard of efficiency in the future, so that nothing shall, as far as practicable, be left to chance in this most important branch of an artillerist's duty. Copies of the complete reports of the officers in charge of this duty, with drawings, are now in the hands of the Chief of Ordnance.
Military sketching, mounted, was attempted for the first time at the school in June, 1877. This branch of military engineering had been introduced into the course during 1876, and was successfully carried out on foot with the detail of officers then under instruction—that is, those of the one-year term resulting in a compiled map of the environs of the post, embracing a piece of country some three miles square. But the acquisition of a sufficient number of artillery horses, rendered available by reductions in the field-batteries of the various artillery regiments, gave the means of extending experience in this important item in an officer's education. Accordingly the officers under instruction were sent to camp for a period of four days. The result of their labor is shown in the report of the instructor in engineering, and in this connection thanks are due to Major-General Hancock for his personal interest and assistance toward a consummation of such a desire.
This branch of instruction has now grown to be one of the first importance, because practice of this nature tests an officer's aptitude in the means by which armies obtain information and security, and enables