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ROSTER OF TROOPS-Continued.
Fort Keogh, Mont... Capt. Edmond Butler.
Company C, Fifth
Company D, Fifth In-
Company E, Fifth In-
Company F, Fifth In-
fantry. Capt. Samuel Ovenshine..
Company G. Fifth InFirst Lieut. T. F. Forbes.
Capt. W.G. Mitchell
Company H, Fifth In-
Company I, Fifth In-
Company K, Fifth In-
fantry: Fort Keogh, Mont. (d. Maj. Eugene M. Baker. Second Cavalry. dress via Fort Buford, Capt. Thomas B. Dewees Dak.) : First Lieut. Colon Augur.
Company A, Second
Company B, Second
Company E, Second
post quartermaster and district quartermaster, Dis.
Acting Asst. Surg. R. G. Redd.
Mont. Lieut. Col. G. P. Buell, Eleventh Infantry, command.
Capt. Joseph Conrad..
Company B, Eleventh
Company C, Eleventh
Company F, Eleventh *Second Lieut. Harry Tittany
Company H, Eleventh *Second Lieut. F. F. Kinslingbury
Company C, Second
Company D, Second
Company G, Second
Company M, Second
Ten Indian scouts.
4-REPORT OF BRIG. GEN. E. O. C. ORD.
HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF TEXAS,
SAN ANTONIO, TEX., October 2, 1878. SIR: I have the honor of submitting my annual report, with abstracts and documents marked A to G inclusive.
*A. Roster of troops, indicating posts, subposts, &c., and their garrisons.
B. Movement of troops since my last annual report.
C. Statement of expeditions and scouts and the distances marchedtotal, 20,360 miles.
* D. Copy of a letter from Judge Paschal, relating to the alleged attack upon a certain Lipan camp which had remained, for over a year, in the vicinity of Santa Rosa, a Mexican town, and under the protection of the towns-people who were profiting by traffic of the plunder brought by the Indians from Texas. It will repay perusal and explain some of the peculiarities which are not generally understood of a Mexican frontier town, referring to which, Emory, page 86 of his Report of Mexican Boundary Survey, has said:
The relations between the Indians of this region and several of the Mexican towns, particularly San Carlos, a small town twenty miles below, are peculiar and well worth the attention of both the United States and Mexican Governments. The Apaches are usually at war with the people of both countries, but have friendly leagues with certain towns, where they trade and receive supplies of arms, ammunition, &c., for stolen mules. This is undoubtedly the case with the people of San Carlos, who also have amicable relations with the Comanches, who make San Carlos a depot of arms in their annual excursions into Mexico. While at Presidio we had authentic accounts of the unmolested march through Chihuahua, toward Durango, of four hundred Comanches under Bajo Sol. It seems that Chihuahua, not receiving the protection it was entitled to from the central government of Mexico, made an independent treaty with the Comanches, the practical effect of which was to aid and abet the Indians in their war upon Durango.
In the fall of 1851, I had the honor of entertaining at my camp the excellent and reverend Bishop Leamy, who was then on his return from a visit to the bishop of Durango, to adjust the territorial limits of their respective dioceses, to make them conform to the altered boundaries of New Mexico and Texas. He stated, as his opinion, that the wealthy State of Durango must soon be depopulated by the Indians. Haciendas within a few leagues of the city, that once numbered one hundred thousand animals, are now abandoned.
This condition of things, together with the three years' drought, had overwhelmed the inhabitants of that State, and had driven them to unmanly despair. On the occasion of a great fiesta in the city of Durango, where no less than ten thousand people were assembled in and around the plaza, the cry was heard, “Los Indios! Bajo Sol!" and in a very short time every one had retreated to his house, leaving no one to face the enemy. The enemy, however, did not appear on the occasion, for it turned out to be a false alarm.
E. An address of citizens residing between the Nueces and the Rio Grande, with an account of one of the raids of the same Lipans referred to in Judge Paschal's letter, aided, perhaps, by a few Kickapoos and Mexicans. It contains the official report of the damages and murders committed by them.
*F. An extract from the "Periodico Official,” or official gazette of Monterey, the capital of New Leon, and headquarters of the military commandante of the army of Northem Mexico; the statements thereof are regarded as ex cathedra. It shows that the Indians we have so continually complained of are a terror to that country; that they have "alucays lived in an immense unexplored and rugged region," contiguous to the United States; are natural robbers and murderers; and that the Mexican Government, notwithstanding that three or four of its northern
* NOTE.—Documents marked * are appended to this report.
States were so long exposed to and raided upon by them, did not, or could not, send any relief until now. Also, that these Indians raided and murdered indiscriminately, in Texas and Mexico, as has been reported by me heretofore.
In July, 1877, some fifteen months ago, I telegraphed to the AdjutantGeneral of the Army as follows:
"I don't wish my telegram of yesterday to be understood as asking new instructions, Those I have will achieve the desired result, for rather than endure the expense and unpopularity consequent upon keeping nearly everybody in the field to meet the respectable force I am collecting to follow the raiders (back), Trevino will soon feel disposed to follow and settle with them himself, and thus make it unnecessary for me to do so. The grazing near Fort Clark is so good this season that it is economy to assemble my cavalry there. The troops move with government transportation;" and now General Trevino has said, in his official gazette, that the campaign against these raiding Indians will have to be made, and will stop United States troops crossing after raiders. As a matter of course the order for the United States troops to cross only in pursuit of them will no longer be operative when there are no raiders to pursue.
The character of the country in Mexico, occupied and raided over by them, is correctly described in the official gazette, but its immense extent can only be understood by a study of Mexican archives and reports. We have a good deal of the same sort of country, and the small command I have available gives me about one soldier to every 120 square miles of it. Therefore it will be a great satisfaction if the campaigns of General Trevino are successful, and we can be relieved of the necessity of hunting savages who do not belong to us but to Mexico; and it will be a pleasure as well as a duty for us to contribute to his success by every means in our power.
In this connection I have to report that the explorations by scouting parties of the mountain country west of the Pecos have developed, unexpectedly, well-watered and quite extensive grazing lands, both plain and valley. Silver-lead, iron, and copper districts have been discovered, and specimens of both silver and gold ores brought in. A map of the country, which will give most valuable information, is now in preparation.
Abstract *G contains a list of persons killed, wounded, &c., by Indians, since October 1, 1877. It is self-explanatory and a very sad commentary upon the efforts made at one time to reduce the forces upon which we depend for defending our frontiers. I would like to impress upon the government that the officers and men who stay and scout with their commands, out in the desert districts of Texas, and perform their full duties, are entitled to something more than commendation.
The climate of these deserts is, for the most part, rigorous, and the troops are subject to extremes of heat in summer and cold in winter, with frequent privations, such as hunger and thirst. It would not be regarded by them as a hardship, and would redound to the advantage of all concerned, if the regiments that have, for so many years, endured such service, could take their turn for duty in the vicinity of civilization. I refer especially to the Tenth Infantry and the colored troops.
E. O. C. ORD,
Brigadier-General, Commanding. The ADJUTANT-GENERAL
Military Division of the Missouri, Chicago, Ill.
4 A.—List of persons killed, wounded, and captured in Department of
Texas since October 1, 1877.
Unknown (Mexican herders), near Sauz ranch, Texas, November 18, 1877; by
road, February 23, 1878; by Mexicans.
vember 16, 1877 ; by Indians.
Texas, April 17, 1878; by Lipan and Kickapoo Indians from Mexico.
Henry Dill (stage-driver), at El Muerto, Tex., August 1, 1877 ; supposed by Indians.
by Apache Indians, December 23, 1877.
15 miles from Fort Davis, February 16, 1878; by Mescalero Apache Iudians from
and Madaleno Villalobas, about 63 miles northwest of Presidio del Norte, Tex., January 5, 1878; by Mescalero Apache Indians from Fort Stanton Indian reser:
vation. W. McCall, in Nine-mile Cañon, 9 miles from Fort Quitman, Tex., April 17, 1878;
by Mescalero Apache Indians from Fort Stanton Indian reservation. Lonjino Gonzales (Mexican mail-rider), near Point of Rocks, 18 miles northeast of
Fort Davis, Tex., April 20, 1878; by Mescalero Apache Indians from Fort Stau. ton Indian reservation.
Florentino and one unknown, at Point of Rocks, about 18 miles northeast of Fort Davis, Tex., April 20, 1878; supposed by Mescalero Apache Indians from Fort Stanton Indian reservation.
Doty, near Brady City McCullough County, Texas, January 16, 1878; by
John Sanders (stage-driver), near Flat Rocks, Tex., October 22, 1877; by unknown
Frederick B. Moore, at San Ignacio, McMullen County, near the line of Dural
County, Texas, 3 p. m., April 17, 1878; by Indians.
Texas, 4 p. in., April 17, 1878; by Indians.
Solidad ranch, Dual County, Texas, April 18, 1878; by Indians.
at 6 a. m., April 19, 1878; by Indians. José M. Canales, at Quijotes Gordes, Tex., 12 m., April 19, 1878, by Indians; his
body was thrown on his camp-fire and his lower extremities consumed.
The foregoing statement includes only those as have been officially reported by post-commanders.
THOMAS M. VINCENT,
Assistant Adjutant General.
San Antonio, Tex., September 30, 1878.
State as to others killed, &c.
being embraced in reports from post-commanders.
4 B.-Judge Paschal's letter relative to alleged attack upon Lipan camp.
CASTROVILLE, MEDINA COUNTY, TEXAS,
August 26, 1878. MY DEAR GENERAL: The want of credulity, on the part of those high in authority, both in civil and military life, touching the true condition of our much-vexed border relations with Mexico, has induced me to give you the following brief account of my observations and experience while recently visiting Santa Rosa, Mexico.
On or about the 1st of last June, in conjunction with several members of the bar, I determined on a pleasure trip to the celebrated San Lucas Springs, situated in the State of Coahuila, and distant about 150 miles from Piedras Negras. Believing it to be unsafe for so small a party of Americans, having their families with them, to make this journey, I requested the late General Anaclito Falcon to furnish us with an escort; this he ordered General Nuncio to do, General Falcon then being en route to San Antonio. Just prior to our departure for Mexico, I met General Nuncio at the quarters of Colonel Shafter, at Duncan, General Mackenzie being present. Referring to our proposed trip General Nuncio tendered the escort, but, at the same time, assured me that it was wholly unnecessary, as the Indians were quiet, and that we could with entire safety make the trip. However, while we apparently acquiesced in this assurance, it was determined not to venture alone any farther than Moralles, some 35 miles from Piedras Negras. Accordingly we left Eagle Pass for the latter place, Moralles, meeting there an American who resided at and practiced medicine in said town, and whose wife was a Mexican lady of distinguished family, and we determined to proceed to Santa Rosa.
We arrived there in safety, and found a qnaint, dilapidated-looking place of some 2,000 inhabitants, situated at the base of the Santa Rosa Mountains-a branch of the Sierra Madres--and distant 110 miles from Piedras Negras. Like all towns throughout Northern Mexico, irrigating-ditches bisected every lot in the town, and fruit and forest trees (the latter as well as the former planted by the Spaniards years ago) were found growing in the most luxuriant profusion, and apparently without the least care. These ditches cause no sickness, so pure and rare is the atmosphere at this altitude; and yet the constant evaporation therefrom, in connection with the dense shades, produces a most delightful temperature, such as nowhere else in the south exists. Here, too, the “northers” of Western Texas are not felt, principally by reason of the contignity of the mountains, from whose sides and gorges sources of clear, cool streams of water burst forth. Theré are no hotels in any of these towns in Northern Mexico, except such places as Monterey or Saltillo. The majority of the inhabitants will receive travelers, accepting such compensation as they may see fit to give; hence it was that our friends, the doctor and his wife, who has joined our party, took us to the house of a wealthy Spanish widow, Donna Trerco.
One fact had impressed itself very forcibly upon our minds throughout our whole journey, the seeming astonishment and curiosity with which our presence was regarded by the natives of all ages and sexes. Perhaps a dozen Americans embraced the entire number in all the towns, Piedras Negras, La Villeta, Moralles, Zaragossa, San Juan Nava, San Juan de Sabinas, and Santa Rosa, along our route, containing in the aggregate some 10,000 or 12,000 people. We were told that we had not made a movement in any of the towns enumerated in which we stopped that had not been noted. Troops of little children and some larger ones followed us in our drives and rambles about the long, narrow streets of the towns, and more than once we felt how entirely at the mercy of this unlettered people were we should any untoward event compel us to resent an injury or insult to ourselves or families, for escape from this land of homogeneous people would be simply impossible, nature itself having stamped her seal of physical distinction upon the Saxon and the Aztec in letters unmistakable. With bated breath the few Americans residing at Santa Rosa would tell us of the daily and open doings of the little body of Lipans and remnant of Kickapoos encamped a few miles from Santa Rosa in one of the mountain gorges and then beg of us strict secrecy; for the reason that to talk of these things (the selling by an Indian, in open day, upon the public square of Santa Rosa, to prominent Mexican merchants, of large American horses, with even undefaced bran for sums varying from $5 to $10, or, as in some instances, a few bottles of mescal), was attended with imminent risk to themselves or property:
Was it, under such circumstances, of any use to put the query that arose upon our lips, "Why do you not inform General Mackenzie of these contemplated raids openly fitted out in Santa Rosa ?” I think not.
As we were informed, the number of Lipans encamped near Santa Rosa was about thirty-four, exclusive of women and children. Of these, at the time of our visit, ten were off on a smuggling expedition at or near the mouth of Devil's River; ten (supprosed to be the same party who killed Nick Colson's two boys recently) were on a raid iu Texas, and the remainder were in camp. The Kickapoos number a few more than the Lipans at this place, and are camped only a few miles apart. They make some preituse of farming and stock-raising, and it seems conceded that, of the remnant of that