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(5) They should be careful that the oars and other gear in their boats are always neatly placed and that the awning is properly spread. They shall wipe out their boats and touch up the bright work as often as necessary. They shall, if necessary, haul their boats up to the boom in order to clear boats coming alongside the gangway.

(6) When not otherwise engaged, boat keepers shall always sit up properly in their boats, and shall never lounge or read.

(7) When boat awnings are not spread they are to stand up and salute all officers who pass their boats, or who come alongside, or leave the gangway. (8) If awnings are spread, they shall sit erect and salute.

When more than one boat is at the boom, boat keepers shall salute together.

(10) At morning or evening colors, boat keepers stand facing the ship's colors and salute as if on deck. If boat awnings are spread, they will be furled at the first call in the evening.

(11) The rules regarding salutes extended by boat keepers apply to all men in boats at the boom or riding astern. All men in such boats salute together.

NOTES ON MANAGEMENT AND HANDLING OF BOATS.

140. (1) Boat crews are always to man their boats over the boom, and all of the crew should be in the boat in about one minute after the pipe or call. The crews of running boats should remain on deck near lower boom, waiting for a call. A boat should never require longer than three minutes after being called away before reporting ready to shove off from the gangway.

(2) Boat crews are to pull a smart, steady stroke at all times. The first part of the stroke is to be pulled with straight back and arms, keeping eyes always in the boat, body to move directly to the front and rear. Always use the back in pulling.

(3) When laying on oars, they must be horizontal, with blades feathered and the boat crew sitting upright with both hands on the handle of the oar. Lounging on the oars must not be permitted.

(4) When oars are tossed, they must be held vertically, with blades in fore-and-aft plane, handles of oars on bottom boards, the wrist of the inboard hand resting on thigh, outboard hand grasping loom at height of chin, crew sitting upright.

(5) In tossing after the command “Way enough” oars are tossed to an angle of 45° and then carefully and quietly boated.

one.

(6) The practice of cutting close across the bow or stern of a ship under lower booms or around points of land, is to be avoided.

(7) No one except the coxswain and boat officer is ever to be permitted to sit abaft the backboard.

(8) When under sail: (a) Never hesitate to reef in good time. (b) Always see sails well set and trimmed according to the direction of the wind.

(c) See that sheets are never belayed.

(d) See that crew is properly stationed for making and shortening sail, reefing and tacking.

(é) Trim the boat by shifting crew or ballast, as required.

1) Require crew to sit on thwarts. In making sail no one will stand up, except when absolutely necessary, and even then only on bottom boards of the boat.

(g) Remember that a loaded boat carries more way than an empty

(h) In coming alongside, allow plenty of room for rounding to; the mast should be unstepped immediately the sail is lowered. If for any reason the boat is likely not to come alongside satisfactorily, it is seaman like to tack or wear and try again.

(9) Boats with full crews shall always pull out from gangway to boom. They shall never haul out by the grahrope when there are more than three men besides the coxswain in the boat.

(10) Boats on ordinary service shall, when the weather is not inclement, use sail in all cases where it will not cause delay in making their trip.

(11) Boatlines should be hove to the bowman whenever a boat comes alongside in a strong tideway, or when a heavy sea is running, in order to assist in holding the boat in place.

ABBREVIATED RULES FOR COXSWAINS.
141. (1) Always:
(a) See required equipment in boat.
(6) See key to boat box in boat before leaving the ship.
(c) See boat and boat gear clean and shipshape.
(d) See crew in uniform.

See that the oarsmen use oars assigned their thwarts.
Require crew to maintain silence in boat.
Rise and salute superior officer when he enters or leaves boat.

(h) See that enlisted men who are passengers in stern sheets rise and salute commissioned officers when they enter boat.

(i) In getting up, tossing, boating oars, etc., see that men handle oars smartly with arm muscles, keeping body as erect as possible.

(1) Always give commands in a clear, sharp, and distinct voice.

(k) Give preparatory commands, when they are necessary to prevent taking the crew by surprise.

(!) Give commands at proper period of stroke---that is, when the blade is in the water near the beginning of the stroke.

(m) Require crew to pull a strong, regular stroke, using the back. (n) Require crew to feather their blades.

(0) When laying on oars, see that crew sit upright, with hands on oar handles, blades trimmed horizontal.

(p) Keep boat bows-on to a heavy sea. (a) Watch the ship for signals.

Obey boat recall as soon as made out.

See fenders over the side when coming alongside a gangway or landing.

(t) See sheets tended while under sail, never belayed. (u) See sails well set and trimmed. (v) Reef in time. (w) See that every duty in a boat is done in a sharp, quick, seamanlike manner.

(2) Correct every infraction of regulations the moment it occurs. (y) In hoisting the boat, hook the forward fall first,

(2) Report, immediately on return to the ship, any damage to boat or loss of boat gear or equipment, and circumstances attending same.

(2) Never:
(a) Belay a sheet while sailing.
(b) Attempt to vybe a main boom in a fresh breeze,
(c) Stow away boat flag when wet; colors will run.
(d) Unhook forward fall first in lowering.
(e) Have after fall hooked when forward one is unhooked. I

Carry heavy weights in extreme ends of boat.

Go over a ship's after gangway, to or from a boat, when colors are hoisted, without saluting.

(h) Allow talking in a pulling boat while under way. i) Allow men to leave boat at landing without proper permission,

Lie alongside shore landing longer than is required to land. 49 (k) Pass a senior boat without permission.

Try to steer in a heavy seaway without a steering oar.

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(m) Try to land through surf, unless expert in doing so, unless absolutely necessary.

(n) Leave boat after it is capsized, until rescued.
(0) Permit the crew to lounge when laying on oars.
(p) Permit any member of the crew to stand on thwarts.

(q) Permit any member of crew to climb a mast. Unstep if necessary.

Permit towels or clothing to be hung up in a duty boat.
Jamb a tiller down too suddenly or too far.

BOAT SALUTES AND BOAT ETIQUETTE. 142. Salutes shall be exchanged between boats meeting or passing each other, as indicated in the table on the following page. The junior shall always salute first, and the senior shall return the salute with the hand.

143. (1) In boats fitted with swivel rowlocks which are so curved as to render tossing impracticable, oars shall be trailed in all cases, instead of being tossed. Such boats shall always have the oars secured by trailing lines.

(2) In power boats, engines are to be stopped in all cases in which pulling boats toss, trail, or lay on oars.

(3) În laden boats, towing boats, or boats under sail, make the hand salute only on all occasions.

(4) Officers not having their distinctive flag or pennant flying will receive the hand salute only, whether they are in uniform or civiliana' clothes.

144. (1) Coxswains in charge of boats rise and salute when officers enter or leave their boats; also when their boats are saluting commissioned officers in other boats or returning a salute from them; but when steering a loaded or towing boat, or a boat under sail, they shall not rise, but shall salute with the hand only.

(2) Enlisted men who are passengers in the stern sheets of a boat shall always rise and salute when a commissioned officer enters or leaves the boat.

(3) Officers in a boat shall rise and salute commanding officers or flag officers when they enter or leave a boat,

(4) Juniors always get into a boat ahead of, and leave it after, their seniors, unless the senior officer in the boat gives orders to the contrary.

(5) As a general rule the seniors take the seats farthest aft; juniors shall leave such seats for their seniors.

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Other naval officer be-

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ing rank.

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