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prescribed below. They shall be displayed continually from daylight until dark.

165. The flag speed indicators consist of boat flags indicating the engine speed to the nearest knot as specified in the following table.

166. Whenever practicable, the speed flag shall be changed before the engine speed is changed. 167. Flag speed indicator table. d= 4 knots. l=12 knots.

t=20 knots.
5 knots.
m=13 knots.

u=21 knots.
f= 6 knots.
n=14 knots.

v=22 knots. g= 7 knots. 0=15 knots.

w=23 knots. h= 8 knots. p=16 knots.

x=24 knots. l=9 knots. q=17 knots.

y=engine backing. j=10 knots. r=18 knots.

z=engine stopped. k=11 knots.

8=19 knots.

NIGHT.

168. The night speed indicators consist of a double electric lamp at the main truck, showing red or white. The significations are as follows: White light:

Steady light: "Going ahead at standard speed.”
Single flashes: “Going ahead at one-third standard speed."

Double flashes: “Going ahead at two-thirds standard speed.” Red light:

Steady light: “Stopped” (in emergency, toots for 10 seconds

with steam whistle also). Single flashes: “Engines backing" (in emergency, three blasts

with steam whistle also). Double flashes: "Engines backing full speed" (in emergency,

three blasts with steam whistle also). 169. In all cases of double flashing, the double flashes should be well accentuated.

170. The fore truck lights shall not be used for speed indicators except in case of failure of those on the main.

171. Truck lights shall not be used for signaling except when all other means fail,

OIL LANTERNS.

172. In the event of the failure of all electric speed indicators, oil lanterns shall be used as follows: One white lantern at the yardarm: “Going ahead at standard

speed.” One white lantern at the yardarm and another half way up:

“Going ahead at two-thirds speed or less.' One red lantern at the yardarm: "Engines stopped” (in emergency,

toots for 10 seconds with steam whistle also). One red lantern at the yardarm and a white lantern half way up:

“Engines backing" (in emergency, three blasts with steam

whistle also). SIGNALS OF THE COAST GUARD FOR WRECKS, ETC. 173. Upon the discovery of a wreck by night the life-saving force will burn a red pyrotechnic light or a red rocket to signify “You are seen; assistance will be given as soon as possible.” 174. A red flag waved

on shore by day, or a red light, red rocket, or red roman candle displayed by night, will signify Haul away.

175. A white flag on shore by day, or white light slowly swung back and forth, or a white rocket or white roman candle fired by night, will signify "Slack away.”

176. Two flags, one red and one white, waved at the same time on shore by day, or two lights, one red and one white, slowly swung at the same time, or a blue pyrotechnic light burned by night signify “Do not attempt to land in your own boats. It is impossible.

177. A man on shore beckoning by day, or two torches burning near together by night, signify “This is the best place to land.”

WEATHER SIGNALS.

178. The following signals are made by Weather Bureau stations as storm warnings:

(1) Small-craft warning.-A red pennant indicates that moderately strong winds that will interfere with the safe operation of small craft are expected. No night display of small-craft warnings is made.

(2) Northeast storm warning.-A red pennant above a square red flag with black center displayed by day, or two red lanterns, one above the other, displayed by night, indicates the approach of a storm of marked violence with winds beginning from the northeast. (3) Southeast storm warning.--A red pennant below à square red flag with black center displayed by day, or one red lantern displayed by night, indicates the approach of a storm of marked violence with winds beginning from the southeast. STEAM VESSELS—SIDE LIGHTS,

(4) Southwest storm warning.-A white pennant below a square red flag with black center displayed by day, or a white lantern below a red lantern displayed by night, indicates tae approach of a storm of marked violence with winds beginning from the southwest. (5) Northwest storm warning.

A white pennant above a square red flag with black center displayed by day, or a white lantern above a red lantern displayed by night, indicates the approach of a storm of marked violence with winds beginning from the northwest.

(6) Hurricane or whole-gale warning: -Two square flags, red with black centers, one above the other, displayed by day, or two red lanterns with a white lantern between, displayed by night, indicate the approach of a tropical hurricane, or one of the extremely severe and dangerous storms which occasionally move across the Great Lakes.

BUOYS.

UNIFORM SYSTEM OF BUOYAGE IN UNITED STATES WATERS.

179. (1) In coming from seaward, red buoys mark the starboard or right-hand side of the channel, and black buoys the port or left side.

(2) Dangers and obstructions which may be passed on either side are marked by buoys with black and red horizontal stripes and may be left on either hand.

(3) Buoys indicating the fairway are marked with black and white vertical stripes and should be passed close-to.

(4) Sunken wrecks are marked by the red and black obstruction buoys described in paragraph 2. In foreign countries green buoys are frequently used to mark sunken wrecks.

(5) Quarantine buoys are yellow.

(6) As white buoys have no special significance they are frequently used for special purposes not connected with navigation.

(7) The starboard and port buoys are numbered from the seaward end of the channel, the black bearing the odd and the red the even numbers.

(8) Perches with balls, cages, etc., will, when placed on buoys, be at turning points, the color and number indicating on which side they shall be passed.

RULES FOR PREVENTING COLLISIONS. 180. Officers and others in the naval service should diligently observe the rules for preventing collisions and should immediately report to the Navy Department any infractions thereof which may come to their notice, giving in detail in such report all the data obtainable in connection therewith, including the names of all witnesses, times, places, and the names and nationalities of vessels violating them.

181. The following extracts of the Inland Rules give the lights and signals which a coxswain may be required to identify. For complete Rules for Preventing Collisions, see chapter 41, United States Navy Regulations, or the Department of Commerce publication, “Seagoing Vessels of the United States, Part VI.”

INLAND RULES.

PRELIMINARY DEFINITIONS.

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In the following rules every steam vessel which is under sail and not under steam is to be considered a sailing vessel, and every vessel under steam, whether under sail or not, is to be considered a steam vessel.

The words "steam vessel” shall include any vessel propelled by machinery.

A vessel is “under way,” within the meaning of these rules, when she is not at anchor, or made fast to the shore, or aground.

LIGHTS, ETC. The word "visible" in these rules, when applied to lights, shall mean visible on a dark night with a clear atmosphere.

ARTICLE 1. The rules concerning lights shall be complied with in all weathers from sunset to sunrise, and during such time no other lights which may be mistaken for the prescribed lights shall be exhibited.

STEAM VESSELS-MASTHEAD LIGHTS.
ART. 2. A steam vessel when under way shall carry-

(a) On or in front of the foremast, or if a vessel is without a foremast, then in the fore part of the vessel, a bright white light * fixed as to throw the light 10 points on each side of the vessel, namely, from right ahead to two points abaft the beam on either side, and of such a character as to be visible at a distance of at least five miles.

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(6) On the starboard side a green light * so fixed as to throw the light from right ahead to two points abast the beam on the starboard side, and of such a character as to be visible at a distance of at least 2 miles.

(c) On the port side a red light * 80 fixed as to throw the light from right ahead to two points abaft the beam on the port side, and of such a character as to be visible at a distance of at least 2 miles. - (d) * (See cut 1, Plate IV.)

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STEAM VESSELS-RANGE LIGHTS. (e) A seagoing steam vessel when under way may carry an additional white light similar in construction to the light mentioned in subdivision (a). These two lights shall be so placed in line with the keel that one shall be at least 15 feet higher than the other, and in such a position with reference to each other that the lower light shall be forward of the upper one (f) * (See cuts 2 and 4, Plate IV.)

STEAM VESSELS—WHEN TOWING. ART. 3. A steam vessel when towing another vessel shall, in addition to her side lights, carry two bright white lights in a vertical line one over the other, not less than 3 feet apart, and when towing more than one vessel shall carry an additional bright white light 3 feet above or below such lights, if the length of the tow measuring from the stern of the towing vessel to the stern of the last vessel towed exceeds 600 feet

(See cuts 4 and 5, Plate IV.)

LIGHTS FOR SAILING VESSELS AND VESSELS IN Tow.

ART. 5. A sailing vessel under way or being towed shall carry the same lights as are prescribed by article 2 for a steam vessel under way, with the exception of the white lights mentioned therein, which they shall never carry. (See cuts 9 and 10, Plate IV.)

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