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Lights carried by vessels-Continued. 11. Steam pilot vessel on duty, bows on under way (art. 8). 12. Steam pilot vessel on duty but not under way (art. 8). 13. Sailing pilot vessel (art. 8). 14. Vessel aground in or near a fairway (arts. 4 and 11, Int. Rules) 15. Steam trawler under way, bows on (art 9 (d), Int. Rules). 16. Drift net fishing vessel (art. 9). 17. Line fishing vessel-outlying tackle over 150 feet (art. 9). 18. Vessel at anchor over 150 feet long (art. 11).

19. Vessel being overtaken (art. 10). Vessel at anchor under 150 feet long (art. 11). Rowing boats under oars or sails (art. 7).

20. Sailing trawler, 20 tons and upward (art. 9 (d), Int. Rules).

LIGHTS FOR SMALL VESSELS.

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ART. 6. Whenever, as in the case of vessels of less than 10 gross tons under way during bad weather, the green and red side lights can not be fixed, these lights shall be kept at hand, lighted and ready for use; and shall, on the approach of or to other vessels, be exhibited on their respective sides in sufficient time to prevent collision, in such a manner as to make them most visible, and so that the green light shall not be seen on the port side nor the red light on the starboard side; nor, if practicable, more than two points abaft the beam on their respective sides

ART. 7. Rowing boats, whether under oars or sail, shall have ready at hand a lantern showing a white light which shall be temporarily exhibited in sufficient time to prevent collision. (See cut 19, Plate V.)

LIGHTS FOR AN OVERTAKEN VESSEL, ART. 10. A vessel which is being overtaken by another, except a steam vessel with an after range light showing all around the horizon, shall show from her stern to such last-mentioned vessel a white light or a flare-up light. (See cut 19, Plate IV.).

ANCHOR LIGHTS. Art. 11. A vessel under 150 feet in length when at anchor shall carry forward, where it can best be seen,

a white light, in a lantern so constructed as to show a clear, uniform, and unbroken light visible all around the horizon at a distance of at least 1 mile.

A vessel of 150 feet or upward in length when at anchor shall carry in the forward part of the vessel,

one such light, and at or near the stern of the vessel, and at such a height that it shall be no less than 15 feet lower than the forward light, another such light. (See cuts 18 and 19, Plate V.)

SOUND SIGNALS FOR FOG, ETC.

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PRELIMINARY.

ART. 15. All signals prescribed by this article for vessels under way shall be given:

1. By “steam vessels'' on the whistle or siren.
2. By “sailing vessels” and “vessels towed on the fog horn.

The words “prolonged blast'' used in this article shall mean a blast of from four to six seconds' duration *

In fog, mist, falling snow, or heavy rainstorms, whether by day or night, the signals described in this article shall be used as follows, namely:

STEAM VESSELS UNDER WAY.

(a) A steam vessel under way shall sound, at intervals of not more than one minute, a prolonged blast.

SAIL VESSELS UNDER WAY.

(c) A sailing vessel under way shall sound, at intervals of not more than one minute when on the starboard tack, one blast; when on the port tack, two blasts in succession; and when with the wind abaft the beam, three blasts in succession.

VESSELS AT ANCHOR OR NOT UNDER WAY.

(d) A vessel when at anchor shall, at intervals of not more than one minute, ring the bell rapidly for about five seconds.

VESSELS TOWING OR TOWED.

(e) A steam vessel when towing, shall,

at intervals of not more than one minute, sound three blasts in succession, namely, one prolonged blast followed by two short blasts. A vessel towed may give this signal and she shall not give any other.

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SPEED IN A FOG.

ART. 16. Every vessel shall, in a fog, mist, falling snow, or heavy rainstorms, go at a moderate speed, having careful regard to the existing circumstances and conditions.

A steam vessel hearing, apparently forward of her beam, the fog signal of a vessel the position of which is not ascertained shall, so far as the circumstances of the case admit, stop her engines, and then navigate with caution until danger of collision is over.

STEERING AND SAILING RULES.

SAILING VESSELS.

ART. 17. When two sailing vessels are approaching one another, so as to involve risk of collision, one of them shall keep out of the way of the other as follows, namely:

(a) A vessel which is running free shall keep out of the way of a vessel which is close-hauled.

(6) A vessel which is close-hauled on the port tack shall keep out of the way of a vessel which is close-hauled on the starboard tack,

(c) When both are running free, with the wind on different sides, the vessel which has the wind on the port side shall keep out of the way of the other.

(d) When both are running free, with the wind on the same side, the vessel which is to the windward shall keep out of the way of the vessel which is to the leeward.

(e) A vessel which has the wind aft shall keep out of the way of the other vessel.

STEAM VESSELS.

ART. 18. Rule I.--When steam vessels are approaching each other head and head--that is, end on, or nearly so, it shall be the duty of each to pass on the port side of the other; and either vessel shall give, as a signal of her intention, one short and distinct blast of her whistle, which the other vessel shall answer promptly by a similar blast of her whistle, and thereupon such vessels shall pass on the port side of each other. But if the courses of such vessels are so far on the starboard of each other as not to be considered as meeting head and head, either vessel shall immediately give two short and distinct blasts of her whistle, which the other vessel shall answer promptly by two similar blasts of her whistle, and they shall pass on the starboard side of each other.

Rule III.-If when steam vessels are approaching each other, either vessel fails to understand the course or intention of the other, from any cause, the vessel so in doubt shall immediately signify the same by giving several short and rapid blasts, not less than four, of the steam whistle.

Rule V.- Whenever a steam vessel is nearing a short bend or curve in the channel where, from the height of the banks or other cause, a steam vessel approaching from the opposite direction can not be seen for a distance of half a mile, such steam vessel, when she shall have arrived within half a mile of such curve or bend, shall give a signal by one long blast of the steam whistle, which signal shall be angwered by a similar blast given by any approaching steam vessel that may be within hearing. Should such signal be so answered by a steam vessel upon the farther side of such bend, then the usual signals for meeting and passing shall immediately be given and answered.

When steam vessels are moved from their docks or berths, and other boats are liable to pass from any direction toward them, they

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shall give the same signal as in the case of vessels meeting at a bend, but immediately after clearing the berths so as to be fully in sight, they shall be governed by the steering and sailing rules.

Rule VIII.-When steam vessels are running in the same direction, and the vessel which is astern shall desire to pass on the right or starboard hand of the vessel ahead, she shall give one short blast of the steam whistle as a signal of such desire; and if the vessel ahead answers with one blast, she shall put her helm to port; or if she shall desire to pass on the left or port side of the vessel ahead, she shall give two short blasts of the steam whistle as a signal of such desire; and if the vessel ahead answers with two blasts, shall put her helm to starboard; or if the vessel ahead does not think it safe for the vessel astern to attempt to pass at that point, she shall immediately signify the same by giving several short and rapid blasts of the steam whistle, not less than four, and under no circumstances shall the vessel astern attempt to pass the vessel ahead until such time as they have reached a point where it can be safely done, when said vessel ahead shall signify her willingness by blowing the proper signals. The vessel ahead shall in no case attempt to cross the bow upon the course of the passing vessel.

TWO STEAM VESSELS CROSSING.

ART. 19. When two steam vessels are crossing, so as to involve risk of collision, the vessel which has the other on her own starboard side shall keep out of the way of the other.

STEAM VESSELS SHALL KEEP OUT OF THE WAY OF SAILING VESSELS.

ART. 20. When a steam vessel and a sailing vessel are proceeding in such directions as to involve risk of collision, the steam vessel shall keep out of the way of the sailing vessel.

COURSE AND SPEED.

ART. 21. Where, by any of these rules, one of the two vessels is to keep out of the way, the other shall keep her course and speed. (See arts. 27 and 29.)

CROSSING AHEAD

ART. 22. Every vessel which is directed by these rules to keep out of the way of another vessel shall, if the circumstances of the case admit, avoid crossing ahead of the other.

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