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CHAPTER 1.

BOATS IN GENERAL.

1. The following instructions concerning boats and boat service, boat salutes and etiquette, the handling of boats under varied conditions, etc., are essentially taken from the Boat Book of 1908, corrected to date to conform with authorized changes, such as relate purely to seamanship having been taken originally from either Knight's Modern Seamanship or Luce's Seamanship (Ward), 1895.

2. The term "power boat” as used in this book and in all signaling applies to boats propelled by any mechanical power, such as steam or internal-combustion engines or electric motors.

3. Vessels of the United States Navy are supplied with one or more of the following classes of boats: Steamers.

Whaleboats.
Motor barges.

Dinghies.
Motor boats.

Wherries
Motor sailing launches. Dories.
Motor dories.

Punts.
Cutters.

Life floats.
Racing cutters.
Boats of special type in use are classified as follows:

Sea sleds (airplane rescue boats).
Special motor boats for surveying (for survey ships).

Torpedo retrievers (special design 10-knot boats for shore station torpedo testing ranges). (Motor lifeboats are now being tested in the fleet.)

GENERAL DESCRIPTION. 4. General remarks.The size of ships' boats is indicated by their length in feet; for example, a 28-foot cutter, a 36-foot steamer, etc. The following is the length (in feet) of the boats now supplied to vessels: Steamers, 50, 40, 30 feet; motor barges, 40 feet;-motor boats, 35 feet; motor dories, 21 feet; motor sailing launches, 50, 40, 36, 33, 30, 24 feet; cutters, 28, 26, 24 feet; racing cutters, 31 feet; whaleboats, 30, 28, 24, 20 feet; dinghies, 20, 16 feet; dories, pulling, 17 feet; wherries, 14, 12 feet; punts, 14, 12, 10 feet.

5. Steamers.-All steamers of the regulation type are fitted to mount a light rapid-fire or machine gun in the bow. They are not fitted with sail power, but are fitted with rowlock sockets in the gunwale and should always carry two oars and rowlocks for use in an emergency

6. Motor sailing launches are heavy working boats, square sterned, and generally sloop rigged. They are fitted to mount a light rapid-fire or machine gun in the bow. They are supplied with oars, and instead of rowlocks they have grommets and thole pins; by double banking the oars a considerable speed may be attained. These boats are specially designed for ships' heavy work, such as carrying stores or large liberty parties or landing force, carrying out anchors, weighing kedge anchors. Motor sailing launches are considered primarily as pulling (or sailing) boats, and are equipped for this service. In addition, they carry the running lights, bell, foghorn, etc., required by law. The 24-foot motor sailing launch is fitted with double standing lug rig for sailing, the 40, 36, 33, and 30 foot motor sailing launches are sloop rigged, while the 50-foot motor sailing launch is schooner rigged.

7. Cutters are double-banked, square-sterned boats, with finer lines than launches, pulling 10 or 12 oars, according to size. They are used as running boats and for ship's general duties and are fitted with either sunken or swivel rowlocks. Their sailing rig is the double standing lug rig, without jib. They are frequently fitted to carry a light rapid-fire or machine gun in the bow. These boats are not being supplied to the newest vessels.

7a. Whaleboats are double-ended and may be either single or double banked, pulling 6 or 12 oars, respectively They are used as running boats and for ship’s general duties of a lighter character than that assigned to launches and cutters. They are fitted with swivel rowlocks. Their sailing rig is the double standing lug rig, without jib. In port they are steered with a rudder, but at sea are fitted with a steering oar passed through a steering rowlock on the quarter. These boats are therefore particularly adapted for use at sea and are generally used as lifeboats.

8. Dinghies are small handy boats, shaped like cutters, single banked with four oars. They are used as market boats or for light rough work or ship's light duties. Owing to the small crew required, they are particularly convenient for nearly any light work in port. They carry sails and are sprit rigged.

9. Wherries are light handy boats. They can be pulled by one man and are not furnished sails.

10. Punts are rectangular flat-bottomed boats, intended for painting and general cleaning around the ship’s water line. They are fitted with rowlocks on each side, but are usually propelled by sculling.

11. Life floats are elliptical in shape, constructed either with a metallic tube covered with cork and canvas or made of balsa wood or other suitable material. They are constructed in four sizes, of 67, 41, 28, and 20 person capacity. They are supplied to hospital ships, mine sweepers, mine planters, troop transports, and various other types of vessels.

12. Motor boats are classified as follows: (1) The barge of a flag officer as a “motor barge.”' (2) A motor boat used by a commanding officer is known as a "gig.”

(3) Service type launches built for heavy duty, and speed and semispeed boats, as “motor boats.",

(4) Sailing launches with auxiliary engines as “motor-sailing launches."

(5) Double-ended power boats, whaleboat type, as "motor whaleboats.” (6) Power dories as "motor dories."

NOMENCLATURE. 13. The following are the authorized names of the various parts of a naval boat:

Backboard. The thwartship board immediately forward of the coxswain's box, placed across the stern sheets of the boat to support the backs of the occupants.

Bilge.-The flat part of a boat's bottom, on each side of the keel, on which the boat would rest if aground. The bilge extends out to where the frames turp upward, which part is known as the "turn of the bilge.”

Blade.-The broad flattened part of an oar.

Boom.—The long pole or spar used to extend the foot of a fore-andaft sail, for example, main boom, jib boom.

Bottom boards.-The fore-and-aft strips secured to the frames, forming the floor of the boat.

Braces, rudder, upper and lower.-Strips of metal secured to the rudder, the forward ends of which fit over the rudder hanger on the stern post, thus securing the rudder and forming a pivot upon which the rudder swings.

Clew (of a sail).-The lower after corner of a fore-and-aft sail.

Deadwood.--A body of timber built on top of the keel at either end of the boat to afford a firm fastening for the cant frames. Fore sheets.—The portion of the boat forward of the foremost thwart.

Frames.—The ribs of the boat; curved timbers secured to the keel and extending upward to the gunwale.

Frames, cant.---Frames at the extreme ends of boats, canted out of the transverse plane so as to be more nearly at right angles to the planking of the boat.

Gaf.--A spar used to extend the upper edge of the quadrilateral fore-and-aft sail of a sloop rig,

Gooseneck.—A sort of iron hook, fitted to the inner end of main boom, used for securing the latter to the mainmast. It permits free movement of the boom in any direction, with the gooseneck as a center.

Gripes.-Boat gripes are made of sennit or canvas and go around the bottom of the boat in securing a boat for sea, those for lifeboats being usually fitted with a slip hook. Boat gripes for steamers and sailing launches are made of chain, have a hook or clamp on the rail, and are secured to the deck by turnbuckles.

Gudgeons.-Small metal fittings, similar to eyebolts, secured to the sternpost of very small boats for the rudder to hang on. Analogous to the rudder hanger of larger boats.

Halyards.-Lines used to hoist and lower topmasts or yards or jib, or the gaff of a sloop.

Handle (of an oar).—The small part of an oar or the inboard end of the loom, which the oarsman grasps when pulling.

Hanger, rudder. -A vertical strip of metal, secured to the sternpost, forming the traveler upon which the rudder braces secure.

Head of sail.—The upper corner of a triangular sail. The upper edge of a quadrilateral sail.

Heel of mast.-The lower part of the boat's mast; the end of the mast which fits in the step on the keel.

Keel.—The principal timber of a boat, extending from stem to stern at the bottom, and supporting the whole frame.

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