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323. As an address or call up" by dot and dash;

(1) The call precedes the signal and is separated therefrom in all signals by the signal sign (..--).

(2) Letters and numbers are made by their dot and dash equivalent. When used as addresses, they are distinguished from letters and numbers of signals, in that they precede the signal sign, while letters and numbers used as signals follow the signal sign.

(3) The tack line sign is not used in calls made by dot and dash.

CALLS AS DESIGNATING SIGNALS.

324. Designating signals by flag hoist are of the same structure as calls by flag hoist used for address. They are made, however, either below the signal proper or as a separate hoist. In either case the designating pennant is hoisted immediately over the call, except that the designating pennant may be omitted, however, when the call is hoisted below the signal and the call begins with a numeral pennant. 6325. Designating signals by dot and dash are of the same structure as calls by dot and dash used for address. They invariably, however, follow the signal and are separated therefrom by the designating pennant sign (---).

INSTRUCTIONS FOR FLAG SIGNALS.

FLAGS USED AND THEIR NAMES.

326. The flags used in signals are those of the international alphabet, 10 numeral flags, 10 numeral pennants (used only in calls), and 14 special flags or pennants. Due to the similarity in the sounds of the different letters, and to prevent confusion or mistakes, flags are to be referred to by the names assigned, as“Cast,” “Roger, etc.; not ‘C,” “R,” etc.

ORDER IN WHICH READ.

327. Signals by flag hoist are read from the top down. When a signal requiring more than one hoist is to be displayed, the hoists shall be made from adjacent halyards of the same yardarm and shall be read from outboard in. In case the individual hoists comprising the complete signal are to be shown one at a time, they should be hoisted in the order in which they are to be read. In the case of

a signal consisting of more than one hoist, the call of the unit addressed may be hoisted on a separate halyard and kept flying until the signal is completed. Care must be taken to make each hoist appear in its proper sequence and to so divide the complete signal into the several hoists, that each hoist conveys the meaning intended.

WHERE HOISTED.

328. Flag signals are to be hoisted on the yardarm where they will be most easily seen and distinguished by the unit for which they are intended.

CALLS.

329. In general, the ship or unit for whom the signal is intended is indicated by the address, i. e., by the call over the signal; a unit exempted is indicated by the call of that unit under the negative flag and under the address; and a unit designated is indicated by the call of that unit under the designating pennant under the signal. A unit may be exempted from a general signal by hoisting the call of that unit under the negative as a separate hoist on the same yardarm with the signal. A hoist made by the commander in chief without a call is a general signal, and is to be answered by all ships within signal distance. All signals to a unit which may be visible to other units shall invariably have the call of the unit addressed over the signal. This permits a signal to a unit to be hoisted at the same yardarm with a general signal if circumstances so require.

ANSWERING SIGNALS.

330. All flag signals made by a senior shall be answered by the unit(s) addressed making the same hoist. This includes such ships of the unit(s) addressed as may have been indicated as exempt, as well as a ship whose call appears in the body of the hoist, although the signal may not be addressed to her. Certain special signals are to be answered, not by repeating the signals as indicated above, but by complying with them. Such cases are covered by specific instructions.

Example. Zero flag under a ship's call directs that ship to take fleet guide. This signal is answered by the ship indicated hoisting the zero flag (guide flag) at the fore truck.

GOVERNING FLAGS.

331. Any signal may be modified or governed by hoisting one of the governing flags over the signal as "affirmative," " "preparatory,' "negative," optional," etc.

Example. "Affirmative" over the signal "anchor” signifies "I have anchored."

“Negative" over the signal “anchor” signifies “Do not anchor.”

“Preparatory” over the signal "anchor” signifies “Prepare to anchor," etc.

TO MAKE A SIGNAL.

332. In preparing to hoist a signal, bend on-
(1) Call(s) of unit(s) for whom the signal is intended.
() ).
(3) Governing flag(s) (if required).
4) Signal proper,
(5) Designations (if any).

The signal should be run up smartly, care being taken to prevent fouling, and the flags checked as they are being hoisted to see that no errors have been made in bending on.

TO ANSWER A SIGNAL.

333. In answering a signal, each unit addressed, including such units as may be designated or exempted in the hoist or whose call appears in the body of the hoist, shall hoist the same signal: (1) At the dip as soon as seen.

(2) “Two blocks" when understood and units for which the ship is responsible have "two-blocked” the signal.

334. In answering a flag signal from a boat, the answering pennant should be displayed over the gunwale when the signal is seen and displayed as prominently as possible when the signal is understood.

PROCEDURE WHEN SIGNALS ARE NOT DISTINGUISHED OR

UNDERSTOOD.

335. Ships which do not understand a signal, or can not distinguish flag signals made to them, are to hoist “interrogatory.” The “interrogatory” hoisted on an adjacent halyard after a signal has been hoisted at the dip signifies “Signal is not understood.' The interrogatory” alone in reply to a signal signifies "Signal can not be read.”

REPEATING SIGNALS.

336. In repeating signals the “repeaters” have the following general signification: The "first repeater” signifies “relayed from, the "second repeater” signifies “repeat flag signals until otherwise directed,” the 'third repeater” signifies “relay to.”

SIGNAL OF EXECUTION.

337. Tactical signals by flag hoist are to be executed:
(1) When the signal is started down from its point of hoist, or
(2) At the time denoted by the time group of the signal, or
(3) On arrival at the position designated in the signal, or

(4) As soon as seen, in which case the signal will be accompanied by the emergency pennant, or a note to the effect that the signal should be obeyed as soon as seen will be found accompanying the signal.

338. Nontactical signals by flag hoist requiring no specific signal of execution, such as signals which transmit information, signals governed by “preparatory, negative,”! etc., are to be acted upon as soon as read without waiting for the signal to be hauled down.

339. When tactical signals are being made by a flagship, nontactical signals are not to be made by other ships concerned in the execution of the tactical signals. Any such nontactical signals flying when a tactical signal is made are to be hauled down at once and made later.

SPECIAL SIGNALS.

USE OF ANSWERING PENNANT BY A SENIOR SHIP.

340. The answering pennant under the call of a junior ship is hoisted two blocks by a senior ship to indicate the receipt of a flag, hoist signal from the junior ship. It is hauled down when the signal is hauled down.

341. If signals are flying on any flagship at the time routine reports are required to be made, such routine signals shall not be hoisted by vessels of that division until the signals on the flagship in question are hauled down.

EXCHANGING CALLS.

342. Vessels of the Navy meeting at sea shall make their calls by flag hoist or flashing light as soon as within signal distance. If flag hoist calls are exchanged, each vessel hoists her own call close up and answers the other by hoisting the other's call close up over the answering pennant. Calls are to be hauled down when they have been answered. In exchanging calls by flashing light each repeats until the other makes R (. .). Of vessels in company only the seniors exchange calls.

343. Similarly when vessels are entering port, the senior exchanges calls as soon as practicable with the senior in port, the senior of the entering vessels being the first to make its call. A ship so situated as to be able to see the call of an incoming ship before the senior officer present shall repeat the call of the arriving ship. When this is answered by the senior officer, she shall repeat the call of the senior officer's ship to the one coming in.

COLORS SIGNAL.

344. In port, and under way when preparing to hoist colors, when two or more ships are in company, the senior officer present shall, at 7.45 a. m., hoist the preparatory flag over a numeral to indicate to the other ships

present the number of the ensign to be hoisted at colors. Thus, * Preparatory 4” will indicate that "a number 4 ensign and jack” are to be worn during the day. (Auxiliary vessels, destroyers, and other small craft are to display colors of size corresponding to those designated for large ships.) If the signal is hoisted after 8 a. m. colors, ships shall answer, and upon its being hauled down shall promptly shift colors to the size ordered.

345. In port the preparatory flag shall be hoisted at the yardarm of the ship of the senior officer present, morning and evening, at the time the call for colors is sounded, and it shall be started from the point of hoist at the same instant that the ensign is started up or down and with the first note of the national air.

346. When any vessel salutes a ship of the Navy, by dipping her national ensign, it shall be returned dip for dip. If before or after colors, or at sea when colors are not flying, the colors shall be hoisted, the dip returned, and, after a suitable interval, the colors shall be hauled down.

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