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TIME AND UNIFORM SIGNALS.

347. When two or more ships are in company, the senior officer present shall at 6.55 a. m. make the uniform signal, hauling down the signal at 7 a. m. as a time signal for the purpose of comparing deck clocks. In case it is not necessary to make a uniform signal the preparatory flag shall be used for the time signal, and the uniform shall be understood to be the same as on the preceding day.

COMPASS SIGNALS AND COMPASS BEARING.

348. Compass signals are expressed by a numeral group of three numeral flags (000 to 359) denoting degrees. Compass courses or bearings are true.

349. Compass bearings, made by a ship in pointing out or referring to an object or position, are always to be reckoned from the ship making the signal, i. e., from the point of departure and invariably toward the objective. 350. Relative bearings are expressed by numerals (1 to 18) denoting tens of degrees. Relative bearing is the direction with reference to the fore and aft line of the ship from which the bearing is taken.

351. Compass and relative bearing signals are usually used in conjunction with one of the following pennants: (1) Course pennant;

turn pennant; (3) formation pennant; (4) deploy pennant; emergency pennant; (6) position pennant. 352. A brief description of these pennants only is indicated in the following paragraphs.

(1) Course pennant.—The course pennant is distinctive of change of course signals in the execution of which the leader changes course, other ships following the leader in succession.

(2) Turn pennant. -The turn pennant is distinctive of changes of course signals in which the turns are made simultaneously.

(3) Formation pennant. The formation pennant is distinctive of signals prescribing formation or a change of formation or line of bearing

(4) The deploy pennant.-The deploy pennant is distinctive of deployment evolutions and in conjunction with a compass signal denotes the course on which the deployment is to be made.

(5) Emergency pennant.--The emergency pennant over (or under) a compass signal denotes the bearing of the danger or emergency.

(6) The position pennant.--The position pennant is distinctive of stationing or position signals.

353. In general, a numeral group of three flags following a signal is a compass signal.

354. Signals which require a compass signal to complete their meaning usually are so worded as to indicate this fact, or have definite instructions accompanying them in regard to the use of a threenumeral hoist to indicate bearing.

355. Other signals, not covered by the above, but which may require a bearing signal to make them more definite, may have the bearing indicated by an accompanying three-numeral hoist. Thus, the signal GYW hoisted alone signifies “Man overboard.” A threenumeral hoist, such as 125, accompanying this signal would signify “Man overboard bearing 125o.”

356. A hoist of one or two numerals to indicate relative bearing should not be used in connection with a signal unless its use is definitely prescribed in the signal itself.

THOROUGH KNOWLEDGE OF FLAGS AND SYSTEMS REQUIRED. 357. A thorough knowledge of the meanings of all flags and pennants depending upon their position in the hoist, and a careful study not only of the system but of the signals themselves, is essential in order that the best result may be obtained.

Procedure Signs. 358. The following procedure signs for use with any system, other than flags, are prescribed to facilitate and expedite the transmission of signals and dispatches.

359. A thorough understanding of the uses of procedure signs is essential to obtain the best results and to prevent confusion. Procedure signs should be memorized by every member of the signal force.

360. For clearness, examples illustrating the use of procedure signs are given under each sign. In many of the examples it is necessary to employ procedure signs whose explanation is contained in subsequent paragraphs. These paragraphs must be referred to as each example is studied. The proper position of the various procedure signs in a signal or dispatch when their use is required is further indicated in article 466.

361. Whenever a procedure sign consisting of a combination of letters appears printed thus INT, the Morse equivalent of the sign so printed is to be transmitted as one character, thus .

there being no interval between letters as would be the case if the letters IN † were transmitted individually, thus .

as in spelling the word "intercept."

AAA, THE "FULL STOP” SIGN. 362. The “full stop” sign, the letters" AAA” made as one sign (.

-), is used in dispatches to indicate the end of a sentence, and in signals to separate distinct signals which are to be executed by the same signal of execution.

AR, THE “FINALE” SIGN.

363. The “finale” sign, AR made as one sign (.. .), is used after the time of origin (or time of receipt if used) of every dispatch. It is also used at the end of every other transmission which does not conclude with one of the procedure signs “B”, “K”, R”, or“Q”, the one exception to this being in the case of calling up and answering a call, in which case the "finale” sign is not used. It signifies the end of a particular dispatch and further signifies “I have stopped to receive your R.”

Example (a). B 34 sends to B 25 as follows:

B 25 B 34 L GR 5 II Prepare to receive stores 2015 AR. B 25 having received the dispatch makes:

R. 364. If at the end of the above dispatch B 34 had indicated that there was a further dispatch to follow (AR O B), B 25 instead of having indicated “Receipt” and “Communication finished” would have made R I K, thus indicating to B 34 that she had received the dispatch and that B 34 was to "go ahead” with the next dispatch.

BT, THE "DOUBLE DASH” SIGN. 365. The “double dash” sign, BT made as one sign (_...-), is used to separate the heading from the text in all code dispatches. It is the code indicator.

Example (a). B 34 sends the code dispatch“TEQX - ABXY” to B 25 as follows:

B 25 B 34 II GR 4 BT 1021 II TEQX I ABXY II 2015

I IMI I GR 4 BT 1021 II TEQX II ABXY I 2015 AR. 366. The “double dash” sign used as above indicates that the groups of the text are from a code book and are not signals. The dispatch, being in code, is to be repeated twice.

EEE, ETC., THE “ERASE” SIGN. 367. The “erase” sign, a succession of E's made separately about ten times (..........), is used to erase a word or group which has been incorrectly transmitted.

368. Should a ship in the course of a signal or a dispatch make a word or group incorrectly, she must immediately make the “erase" sign, then make the last word or group which was correctly transmitted and continue the signal or dispatch.

Example (a). B 34 in sending to B 25 the dispatch “Prepare to receive stores," misspells the word "to". The procedure is as follows: Prepare ti " erase” sign, Prepare to receive stores 2015 AR.

GR, THE “GROUP" SIGN. 369. The " group” sign, the letters "GR” made separately

.-.), and followed immediately (without the “break” sign) by a number (e. g. GR 12) is used at the end of the prefix to signify: "The text, office, and date number, and time reference number together contain the number of words or groups indicated."

370. The position of “GR” and its number is invariably at the end of the prefix.

Escamples. (a) B 34 B 25 II GR 5 II Prepare to receive stores 2015 AR. (6) B 34 B 25 II GR 4 BT 1026 I TEQX II MPZL II 2345 II

IMI II GR 4 BT 1026 II TEQX II MPZL II 2345 AR. 371. The use of “GR” is obligatory in all code dispatches and in all official plain-language dispatches.

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372. The object of this sign is

(1) To inform the receiving ship of the length of the dispatch about to be transmitted. When the transmission has been completed it enables the receiving ship to know whether it has received the correct number of words or groups.

(2) To enable the receiving ship to piece together parts of a dispatch by referring to the groups by their numerical position in the dispatch, or to request repetitions of, or to correct certain words or groups.

373. The “group” sign may be used in conjunction with the "interrogatory” sign (INT) to verify the number of groups in a dispatch which has been transmitted. When so used this combination signifies “What is number of groups?” Thus

B 25 B 34 II INT GR AR signifies “What is the number of groups in your last dispatch?” and

B 25 B 34 I INT GR II 1432 AR signifies “What is the number of groups in your dispatch timed 1432?"

374. When counting groups in dispatches each word or group of the text counts as one. The “Office reference number and date group” and “Time of origin” each count as one group.

375. It will be noted that in counting groups the repeated code groups are not counted. Also that procedure signs are not counted.

376. Groups are counted as follows:

(1) In plain-language dispatches each word of the text including the time of origin, and office reference number and date group (if used).

(2) In code dispatches (or dispatches made up of code and plain language) each group of the text and each plain-language word (if any), and also the time of origin, and office reference number and date group (if used).

II, THE “BREAK” SIGN. 377. The “break” sign, the letters “II” made separately (....), is used:

(a) In any dispatch between the component parts of the heading and between the time of origin and time of receipt if latter is used.

(6) In code dispatches between the groups of the text and between the text and time of origin.

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