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(7) The boat falls should be well overhauled, led along the deck so that the men have a clear hauling space, and they must be well manned. The boat should never have to wait for preparations on deck.

(8) All being ready on deck, stand by, wait for a smooth time, hook forward, then aft, haul taut, hoist away. Men should run away with the falls as the ship rolls toward the boat, which should be run up quickly but steadily. If the winch is used, the falls should be taken around the barrel, which should be turning at the desired speed before the order "Haul taut” is given.

(9) Boats fitted with automatic releasing hooks should have their falls rove off in one, single leaders at the davit heads, and the blocks must be of sufficient size to permit the falls to render easily. A METHOD OF PICKING UP A MAN OVERBOARD (PAR

TICULARLY WITH WIND AND SEA ABAFT OF BEAM).

46. (1) The following method of picking up a man, in good mod. erate or rough weather, with a quick-turning steamer, commends itself to many seamen:

(2) At the call “Man overboard” ascertain the position of the man, put the rudder hard over, toward him, so as to throw the stern away from him, and handle the engines so as to make a short turn without stopping. If possible, stop the engine on the side on which the man falls, so that he will not be struck by the propeller.

(3) As the ship turns, clear away and man the lifeboat which is to be lowered, at the same time keeping a good watch on the man; his approximate position will be marked by the life buoy. As the ship approaches the man, toward the end of the turn, maneuver her so as to bring her just to windward of him, and slow the engines so that she will not have too much speed for lowering when she reaches this position. Lower and let go with such precautions as wind and sea demand;

stop the ship or get her in position to leeward of the man. (4) The advantages of this method are:

(a) That the boat may be dropped near the man, so that the coxswain can steer straight for him without being signaled to.

(b) That there is plenty of time to get the boat ready for lowering, and consequently less risk due to haste.

(c) That the boat has a short leeward pull to the man, and while the interval before the boat is in the water may be longer, the interval before it reaches the man would generally be shorter.

(d) That the officer of the deck has better control for regulating the speed at which he is to lower the boat.

(e) That the interval between the alarm and lowering the boat being greater, there is less chance of accident from excitement and confusion.

(f) That by turning after the boat has been lowered the boat will have a pull to leeward after picking up the man.

LIFE BUOYS.

47. (1) In connection with "Man overboard,” attention is invited to the regulations concerning life buoys.

(2) The Naval Instructions require that at all times at sea, and where anchored in a strong tideway in port, an efficient person be stationed to let go the life buoy. Except in small ships, one man is usually detailed for each life buoy. These men also act as lookouts, and it is important that they clearly understand their duties.

(3) Men on this post must realize that should a man fall overboard his life will depend largely upon the intelligence and alacrity with which they perform their duty. They must, therefore, know (a) how to let go the life buoy; and (b) when to let it go.

(4) Ordinarily life buoys are let go by pulling a toggle, which releases the buoy, allowing it to fall in the water. Should it not fall of its own accord it is probable that a slight blow will cause it to do so. The men on that post should, however, understand how to cause it to drop in case the toggle carries away, the mechanism jams, or the buoys fails to fall through any cause. They must, above all, understand that the buoy must be dropped immediately in some way, and that it is insufficient for them to simply make a routine effort to drop it, and then report that they can not do so. To familiarize the men on this post with the operation of the life buoy it is well to have them present occasionally when the gunner tests the life buoys in making preparations for sea.

(5) The question as to when to let the life buoy go requires intelligence and composure. cool, intelligent lookout will let the buoy drop within a few feet of the man overboard, while if somewhat excited, or if he does not clearly understand his duties, he may drop it long before the man is abreast the buoy, or long after he has passed.

(6) At the call “Man overboard,” the life-buoy lookout should endeavor instantly to ascertain the side on which the man fell and to get sight of him; then drop the buoy as soon as possible after the man is abreast of the buoy, so that it will be between him and the ship, toward which he naturally faces and swims.

(7) If the man can not be seen, the lookout can usually determine the side on which he fell, as he will see many of the people about decks go to that side. Then, to avoid the possibility of dropping the life buoy on the man (instances are recorded where men have thus been killed) the opposite buoy should be dropped when judged to be abreast of the man in the water.

(8) If the man is sighted after the buoy is dropped, and it is then seen that the second buoy can be dropped nearer to him, it should be let go; but as a general rule the second buoy should be kept fast (unless it is really needed) for use in case men fall overboard in lowering or hoisting the lifeboat.

(9) The above instructions are for guidance of the life-buoy lookout in case he hears no orders and must, therefore, act upon his own initiative. He shall, of course, strictly and promptly obey any commands that he may receive from proper authority, regardless of the above instructions; but as the life buoy, to be of use, must be dropped promptly, the lookout must clearly understand that if no orders have been received by the time it is necessary to drop it (as indicated above), he must drop it at once.

(10) Modern vessels are so large, and life buoys are so far removed from the officer of the deck, that it is important that the life-buoy lookouts clearly understand the above general principles, and then, in the absence of orders, that they be governed by their common

(11) After dropping the buoy, the lookouts should keep the man in sight until the persons specially detailed for this purpose reach their station in the after rigging, and get the bearing from the lifebuoy men. If one lookout is attending both buoys, it would be unwise for him to leave his station to go into the after rigging as a lookout, but if there are two life-buoy lookouts, each may be permanently stationed to go in the rigging and keep a lookout on the man after his own buoy has been let go.

(12) Life buoys should be dropped frequently, when the crew are in swimming, in order to familiarize the men with their use.

SIGNALS TO AND FROM LIFEBOATS. 48. (1) Signalmen, previously detailed, man the rigging and keep their eyes on the man in the water. A lifeboat, lowered to pick up a man, may be directed by the following signals:

Numeral 1, pull to the right of the line looking from the ship to boat.

sense.

Numeral 2, pull to the left of the line looking from the ship to boat.

Numeral 3, pull directly away from the ship.
Numeral 4, pull directly toward the ship.

(2) By night the position of the man will be indicated by a searchlight beam. (3) Night signals to be used by the lifeboat are: Blue light, "Have picked up man." Red light, “Need assistance." Green star, “Can not find man.

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CHAPTER IV.

DRILLS AND EXERCISES.

DEFINITIONS AND GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS. 54. The term "ship flotilla" applies to the unit formed of the boats from one ship. Normally it will consist only and entirely of boats from one ship, though at times it may be convenient for drill or other purposes to transfer one or more boats from one flotilla to another temporarily, in order to equalize the units, especially for towing:

55. A“division flotilla” is composed of the ship flotillas of one division when operating together as a unit.

56. A "squadron flotilla” is composed of the ship flotillas of one squadron when operating together as a unit.

57. A "fleet flotilla” is composed of the division flotillas of the fleet when operating together as a unit.

58. Formations of divisions and ship flotillas will habitually be in natural order unless otherwise prescribed, the order being the same as that of their divisions and ships in the fleet.

59. The term “on beam” will habitually mean with the guides of formations abreast the boat boom.

60. (1) Unequipped boats are those carrying only the regular boat equipment which is kept at all times in the boat. (See arts. 19, 22.)

(2) Équipped boats are those which are equipped for landing in accordance with these instructions. They will always contain arms, ammunition, and the amount of provisions and water required for the intended service, unless the commissariat actually accompanies the expedition, in which case only arms, ammunition, and filled canteens are required.

61. (1) When the flotillas are exercised in tactical maneuvers, it is chiefly for the training of the officers and coxswains (with a view to utilizing this training at some other time when the boats are equipped

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