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for landing), and hence tactical exercises can be carried out as advantageously with an unequipped as with an equipped boat.

(2) When boats are called away for exercises under sails or oars, no arms or equipments will be provided. The regular boat gear shall, however, be carried unless the nature of the exercise renders it desirable to leave some of it on board. When boats are called away for exercise as a flotilla or for landing, dinghies will not be required to go.

(3) When a preparatory signal for getting out boats is made, all preparations shall be made on deck; davits rigged out and boats made ready for lowering.

(4) If the signal indicates that the exercise will be for equipped boats, all necessary articles are to be provided abreast the boats; but no article shall be passed into a boat, nor shall any boat be lowered, until the signal of execution is made.

(5) At the signal of execution (whether preceded by preparatory signal or not) all boats are to be lowered, equipped, manned, and formed as prescribed. If for equipped boats, preparations shall be made as if preparing for some actual specified service in accordance with article 115.

62. As a rule, in all operations of boats except for simple exercises under oars or sails, the boats of each ship flotilla will be in column with the towing power boats leading, ready to tow if not actually towing. When tows are formed, the least powerful towing boat of each ship flotilla should head its column ready to cast off to assist any boat or pick up a man overboard or perform any other duty.

63. When the flotillas are called away, the boats will first form in column, unless otherwise indicated, on the starboard side of their respective ships, the leading boat abreast the lower boom, in the following order: Steamers, motor sailing launches, cutters, whaleboats. Small power boats, such as motor whaleboats, although available for towing if needed, shall take their position at the rear end of the column, unless used for towing. The battalion commander shall be in the leading towing boat at the head of the column. Hospital boats, when present, shall be at the rear of their columns or lines.

64. (1) Distance is expressed in boat's lengths and is measured from stern to bow. When not otherwise prescribed, it shall be two boats' lengths.

(2) For the sake of uniformity, a boat's length shall be taken as 40 feet.

65. When tactical evolutions begin, the leaders of the ship flotillas will open out, if closed, until their intervals are the same as their distance apart in line, which will vary with the number of boats in each ship flotilla.

66. (1) Being in any formation, to form for landing, first form “line of ship flotillas” (or line of division flotillas) and head the line of columns toward the landing place. Then the formations described in The Landing Force and Small-Arm Instructions will be assumed, boats with Artillery casting off and assuming position on the flanks, while the main body of the column (boats carrying Infantry) form line and head in toward the beach. If machine or small rapid-fire guns are carried in Infantry ats, they shall be used to sweep the beach from their position in the general line.

(2) If the boats of a single ship are called away for landing, they shall form in column, in the above-mentioned order, as soon as they shove off from the ship, and be taken in tow. The tow then heads in to the landing place, or as directed. In forming for attack, boats cast off and form line; Artillery boats take position on the flanks and cross their fire, as described under instructions for landing.

(3) The following whistle signals may be used, where not likely to give the alarm to the enemy:

When taking the boats in tow, after straightening out the tow lines

Three blasts, stand by to boat the oars.
Two blasts, boat the oars.
Being in tow, preliminary to disembarking-
Three blasts, stand by oars, and prepare to cast off.
Two blasts, out oars.
One blast, cast off

67. (1) The flag boat of a ship flotilla, when exercising as a part of a division flotilla, shall lead its column; when the ship's flotilla is exercising independently, it may lead the column, or it may leave the formation and be free to take any position.

(2) Similarly, the flag boat of a division flotilla or squadron flotilla may leave the column, or it may leave the formation and take the position from which the flotilla can best be maneuvered.

(3) Flag boats shall, when possible, be power boats, except when boats are being exercised as a division under sail, in which case a sailing launch or other boat may be used.

68. Boat drills shall not be confined to the seaman class, but shall, so far as possible, include all classes of enlisted men. Special attention shall be paid to elementary boat exercises for marines and the engineer force, and they should be encouraged to become good 69. (1) The landing force shall frequently be embarked and landed in the manner that would be required under service conditions. Mustering and equipping the force is not sufficient to develop or maintain the skill of the crew, or to develop or exercise in their proper duties the special details, staff officers, etc. Hence, landing exercises should be complete, thorough, and deliberate.

oarsmen.

(2) Similarly, at abandon ship it is always preferable actually to lower the boats and embark their crews, but as it is important that each man be kept constantly familiar with his duties at this evolution, it is preferable, in cases where lowering boats is impracticable, to provide articles and muster abreast the boats rather than omit the exercise entirely.

70. (1) Every loaded or manned boat in tow at any time shall carry conveniently for instant use a hatchet (obtained from the boat box) ready to cut the towline instantly in case of man overboard or threatened swamping or other emergency.

(2) The officer or petty officer in charge of a towed boat will be responsible for the proper trim of the boat to insure safety.

ORDINARY SERVICE UNDER OARS-COMMANDS. 71. The commands given in Tables I and II below are prescribed to cover ordinary cases of a boat manned alongside or at a landing and thence making passage to a landing or to another vessel.

TABLE I. (1) Stand by the oars.

(6) Oars (followed by “Way (2) Shove off.

enough” or “Way enough, (3) Out oars.

without the command Give way together.

Oars”). In bows; or trail bow.

TABLE II. (1) Stand by the oars.

(6) In bows. (2) Up oars.

(7) Stand by to toss; Toss, oi (1) and (2) Given before boat is Oars (followed by “Way reported ready.

enough” or “Way enough, (3) Shove off.

without the command (4) Let fall.

Oars”). (5) Give way together.

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72 (1) The commands in Table I shall always be used with single-banked boats. With these boats the oars will be in their places in rowlocks, blades in the water, and oar trailing fore-and-aft, before the boat is ready to receive passengers.

(2) With all boats having awnings spread. If the boat is double banked, the oars will remain in the boat until the command “Out

At the command “Stand by the oars,” the most convenient thwartmen will cast off the awning stops and secure them after the oars are out.

(3) With laden boats, working boats, boats carrying visiting parties, all pulling boats at sea or in rough weather in port, and with all pulling boats after sunset.

73. In all other cases than those specified above, the commands in Table II will be used, in port or in smooth water, for doublebanked boats having rowlocks that permit of “letting fall.” For example, this table would be used for all double-banked running boats, for all special boats carrying commissioned, warrant or appointed officers, and, in general, on all occasions not excepted by article 72.

TABLE III. Oars...

-(1) To stop pulling for any purpose, keep

ing the oars out. (2) To salute. Trail.

(1) To salute. (2) To pass obstructions. For the latter oars of either side may be

trailed independently. Hold water....

To check headway or sternboard. The

oars of either side may hold water independently: Requires care if boat has

much headway. Stern all...

To acquire sternboard. Should not be

given when boat has much headway. When boat has headway, should be

preceded by "Hold water. Back starboard (or port)..To turn. Should “Hold water” before

backing, if boat has much headway. Back starboard, give To turn quickly when boat has little or no

way port (or vice headway. versa).

Stand by to toss; Toss...(1) To salute. (2) In going alongside,

when it is not desirable to boat the oars. The habitual command to be used when coming alongside with double-banked

boats on official or dress occasions. Boat the oars..

To get the oars in the boat. Point the oars.. .To shove off a grounded or beached boat.

NOTE.-Thwarts and oars are numbered from forward. Double-banked thwarts are designated by No. 1, starboard, No. 1, port; No. 2, starboard, No. 2, port, etc. The thwarts next to the bow and stroke are also properly designated as second bow and second stroke.

EXPLANATIONS IN DETAIL.

Ordinary ship's service which permits use of commands given in Table I.

74. Suppose a cutter manned at the gangway, bowmen standing in fore-sheets holding on with boat hook to grab ropes or jackstay, oars boated. The coxswain has orders to shove off and go in for a working party. The coxswain commands and the crew executes the details as follows:

(1) Stand by the oars.-Every man except the bowman seizes his oar by its handle and sees the blade clear of other oars.

The oars should be shoved forward over the gunwale far enough to bring the handle in the proper position, but should be kept fore-and-aft. If awnings are spread the most convenient thwartmen cast off the stops.

(2) Shove off.--Bowmen shove bow smartly away from ship's side with boat hooks, at the same time shoving her a little ahead, if possible; the coxswain sheers her off with tiller and hauls ahead on stanchions of the gangway or on the grab rope, assisted as necessary by the inboard stroke oar, who takes his seat as soon as possible and prepares to get his oar out with rest of crew. Fenders are rigged in by men abreast them. Bowmen place boat hooks fore-and-aft midships, seat themselves, and get their oars ready.

(3) Out oars. Given when the boat is clear of the ship's side. Thwartmen throw blades of oars horizontally outward, allowing the leathers to fall in row locks, place both hands on handle, and quickly, trim blades flat and directly abeam. This is the position of "Oars." Bowmen throw their oars out at same time as rest of crew, if they are ready; otherwise they swing their oars out together, touching their blades forward to insure making the movements in unison, and bring them to the position of “Oars'' or take up the stroke with the remainder of the crew as the case may be.

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