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(4) Give way together.—All the oarsmen take the full stroke, keeping accurate stroke with the starboard stroke oar. Feather blades habitually. Bowmen get their oars out together and take up the stroke. (They may have gotten them out before the command “Give way together, ” in which case they give way with the other members of the crew.) The crew will continue to pull a strong, steady stroke, always using their backs, and maintain silence.

(5) In bows. Given as landing is approached, and while the blades are in the water. Bowmen complete that stroke, toss oars simultaneously to an angle of 45°, and boat them together, seize boat hooks, stand erect in bow, facing forward, holding boat hooks vertical in front of them until needed.

(6) Oars. Given when the coxswain estimates that the boat's headway will carry her to the landing, and while the blades are in the water. Finish that stroke and assume the position “Oars." When in this position, if landing or gangway is clear of other boats, command " Way enough. The crew toss their oars simultaneously to an angle of 45° and lay them in place in the boat, with as little noise as possible, rigging the blades entirely inside the gunwale. The stroke oarsman next to the landing gangway takes up a boat hook, the men nearest the fenders place them over on inboard side, bowmen and stroke oarsmen check headway, keep boat clear, haul alongside, etc., as necessary.

(7) Or, if preferable, and the skill of the crew will enable them to perform the movement together, the command "Oars" may be omitted, and instead, command "Way enough,” given when the boat's headway will carry her to the landing, and while the blades are in the water at the beginning of a stroke. Finish that stroke, and as the oars leave the water the men toss them simultaneously to an angle of 45“, and boat them quickly and quietly, rigging the blades entirely inside of the gunwale. The stroke oarsman next to the gangway or landing takes up his boat hook; men nearest the fenders place them over on inboard side; bowmen and stroke oarsmen check headway, keep boat clear, haul alongside, etc., as necessary.

NOTE.-With a single-banked boat, the oars would be trailed when the above instructions require those of a double-banked boat to be tossed and boated. The oarsmen simply let go the handles, allowing the oars to trail in a fore-and-aft direction. The oars in this case are not boated until the command “Boat the oars," when the oars are lifted into the boat with the blades aft.

Dress or special service, which requires use of commands given in Table II.

75. If a cutter is called away as a running boat, or on special duty to carry officers to another ship, in daylight, in good weather, in port, the oars will be brought to the position of "Up oars” before the boat is reported ready; the bowmen stand in the fore-sheets holding on to the grabrope or jackstay, the inboard stroke oar in stern-sheets holds on with boat hook. The oars are brought to the position of “Up oars" by the commands:

(a) Stand by the ours.- - The same as under Table I; the blades will be kept clear of the bowmen's boat hooks.

(6) Up oars.—The oars, except the two bow and the inboard stroke ours, are tossed quickly to a vertical position, blades trimmed in a fore-and-aft plane and in line with that of the stroke oar, handles of oars resting on bottom boards, outboard hand grasping loom of oar at height of chin, wrist of inboard arm resting on inboard thigh, and steadying oar.

76. (1) The boat officer or coxswain then reports to the officer of the deck that his boat is alongside, ready for duty. When the officer of the deck has given necessary orders to the boat, the boat officer or coxswain commands:

(2) Shove off.This command is executed as described in article

(2). As soon as possible, the inboard stroke oar lays aside his boat hook and gets up his oar without further command. If time permits, the bowmen get up their oars and await the command “Let fall. If, however, the command “Let fall” is given before their oars are up, they point their oars forward over the gunwhale, “kiss” the blades, swing them out, and take up the stroke, or come to “Oars, as the case may be.

(3) Let fall.-Given when the boat is clear of the ship's side. It may be necessary to let fall the forward oars before there is room, for the after oars to clear the ship's side. This would be done by the command, 1, 2, and 3, “Let fall,” or 2 and 3, “Let fall.” Other oars remain vertical until the command “Let fall.” At this command all the oarsmen raise their oars vertically and drop the blades outboard into the rowlocks smartly and together, slipping the inboard hand to the handle of the oar, and come to position Oars” with both hands on the handle. Under no circumstances should the blades be allowed to touch the water in letting fall.

(4) Give way together.-As described in article 74 (4). (5) In bows.-As described in article 74 (5).

(6) Stand by to toss. Toss.—The cautionary.command is given as a warning to the crew. The command “Toss” is given as the blades enter the water, and when the boat has sufficient headway just to reach the gangway or landing. The oarsmen complete that stroke and then toss the oars quickly to a vertical position by pressing smartly on the handle with inboard hand, raising the oar with the outboard hand under the loom. Lower handle to bottom boards and assume position described at“ Up oars.” (See art. 75 b.) The inboard stroke oar lays his oar in the boat quickly after he has it at the vertical position, seizes boat hook, and assists to check headway and haul stern of boat into the gangway.

77. (1) The crew remain at the "Toss' until officers leave the boat. They are then in position to "let fall,” when boat is ordered to lie off the quarter or to haul out to the boom.

(2) If it is desirable to lay the oars in the boat, it will be done by the command “Boat the oars, at which each man lays his oar quickly and quietly in the boat, blades forward.

(3) În rough weather or at night (when it is not desired to remain alongside with the oars at“Toss”) the commands, Oars,” followed by "Way enough” or the command “Way enough” given alone, may be used as described in article 74 (6) and (7).

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EXPLANATIONS OF SPECIAL COMMANDS GIVEN IN TABLE III.

78. (1) Oars.-Given when blades are in the water. Finish that stroke and bring oars quickly to position of “Oars. (Art. 74 (3).)

(2) Trail.-Given when blades are in the water. Finish that stroke, release the handle of the oar, allowing it to draw fore-and-aft, and trail alongside. If no trailing lines are fitted, retain the handle of the oar in the hand. With a cutter having sunken rowlocks, lift the handle of the oar quickly when blade is in the water at middle of stroke, throw oar out of rowlock, and retain handle in hand.

(3) Hold water.-Given when blades are in the water. Cease pulling, drop the oars in the water, and hold them perpendicular to the keel line, blades vertical. With considerable way on, especially in a laden boat, care in holding water is required to prevent carrying away the rowlock or gunwale or the oar itself. Under these conditions drop the oars in the water with the upper edges of the blades inclined forward and gradually bring the blades vertical as way, is lost.

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(4) Stern all.Given from positions of “Oars" or "Hold water. The oars are backed, keeping stroke and feathering as when pulling ahead.

(5) Back starboard (or port).--Designated oars are backed as at “Stern all.” Generally when boats have way on, oars should not be backed until the headway is checked by holding water or laying on oars.

(6) Back starboard give way port (or vice versa).--Given from the position of “Oars “Hold water." Proceed as described in article 74 (4), and article 78 (5).

(7) Toss.—(This command should be generally preceded by cautionary command “Stand by to toss.") Given when blades are in the water or at the position of "Oars." Complete the stroke, press smartly on the handle, and, with the other hand under loom near leather, bring oar quickly to vertical position, blades trimmed foreand-aft and in line; hands as at the completion of “Up oars.

(8) Boat the oars.--Given from the position “Toss” or “Trail” (with boats using swivel rowlocks). Place the oars, quietly and quickly, fore-and-aft in the boat. This command may be given from any position, but it is preferable, when time and room permit, to command “Oars, Toss (or Trail), Boat the oars.

(9) Point the oars.-To shove off a boat that has grounded, stand facing aft, point the blades of the oars forward and downward to the beach at an angle of about 30°, ready to shove off at the command. If waves lift the stern of the boat, the United effort to shove off should be made just as her stern lifts.

79. When for any reason it may be desirable, the preparatory command “Stand by to

may precede the commands “Toss, "Trail,” “Hold water, "Stern all,” or in fact any command of execution given in a boat. In order to secure precision and uniformity of movement, and in order to avoid taking the crew by surprise, cautionary orders should usually precede commands of execution, the crew thus being always prepared promptly to execute the commands when given; they should only be used when necessary, since a multiplicity of cautionary or preparatory orders detracts from the sharp, smart work that boats and their crews should exhibit. NOTE.—The preparatory command for "Oars” is “Stand by to lay on the oars."

HANDLING BOATS IN A SURF. 80. (1) The most dangerous duty which a ship's boat is called upon to perform is landing through a surf. This requires greater

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skill than any other work in an open boat, and lack of skill or inattention on the part of the coxswain is so likely to result in a loss of life that a novice should never attempt to steer a boat through heavy surf to a beach. The skill necessary to make a successful landing through surf can be obtained only by practical experience gained first as an oarsman and later as a coxswain.

(2) If it is absolutely necessary for an inexperienced crew to land through a surf, the safest method should be adopted, which is to back in, keeping bow to sea, and every time a sea approaches pull to meet it with a good headway, then back in as fast as possible after it passes:

(3) If this is impracticable, a fairly safe method is by towing a heavy drag over the stern.

(4) The great danger in landing through a surf is that of “broaching to.” The breaker lifts the stern, forces it to one side until the boat gets broadside on and capsizes. Sometimes, though rarely, a heavy sea gets under the boat, buries her bow, and turns her end over end.

(5) It should always be remembered that surf, when viewed from seaward, is exceedingly deceptive and is always much worse than it appears. On an open seacoast any surf visible from a small boat to seaward would probably be dangerous.

MANAGEMENT OF OPEN ROWING BOATS IN A SURF.

81. The following rules are published by the Royal National Lifeboat Institution:

I. Rowing to seaward.--(1) As a general rule, speed must be given to a boat rowing against a heavy surf. Indeed, under some circumstances, her safety will depend upon the utmost possihle speed being attained on meeting a sea. For if the sea be really heavy, and the wind blowing a hard, on-shore gale, an approaching heavy sea may carry the boat away on its front and turn it broadside on or up-end it. A boat's only chance in such a case is to obtain such a way as shall enable her to pass, end on, through the crest of the sea and leave it as soon as possible behind her. If there be a rather heavy surf, but no wind, or if the wind is off-shore and opposed to the surf, as is often the case, a boat might be propelled so rapidly through it that her how would fall more suddenly and heavily after topping the sea than if her way had been checked.

(2) It may also happen that, by careful management, a boat may be made to avoid the sea, so that each wave may break ahead of her,

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