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84. (1) When carrying provisions, be careful with the oars, as they are easily injured by letting stores fall on them. Keep all casks “bung up” and leave a space, or “well,” under the after thwart for bailing the boat out.
(2) Have tarpaulins for covering bread or anything that will be injured by salt water or rain.
(3) While loading, make a large allowance for the roughness of the water you may have to encounter.
(4) Do not overload a boat, particularly with men, as it may result in loss of life. When carrying treasure, always attach a buoy, with a drift of line at least equal to the greatest depth of water on the route to be taken.
BOARDING A WRECK. 85. (1) Whenever practicable, a vessel, whether stranded or afloat, should be boarded from to leeward, as the principal danger is that the boat may collide against the vessel or be swamped by the rebounding of the sea, and the greater violence of the sea on the weather side of * the vessel renders such accidents more liable to occur on that side.
(2) If a stranded vessel is broadside to the sea, the chief danger in boarding to leeward is the possible falling of the masts, or that the boat may be stove by the wreckage alongside. Under such circumstances it may be necessary to take a wrecked crew into a lifehoat from the bow or stern of the wreck. In boarding a wreck that is stranded on a flat shore, lifeboats usually anchor to windward and veer down from a safe distance until near enough to throw a line on board.
(3) In rescuing people from a drifting wreck, approach from leeward, taking care to avoid wreckage floating alongside. If there is much wind it is best to lay well off, throw a strong line aboard, have the people secure the line around their bodies, one at a time, and jump overboard, for if the boat gets alongside of a wreck which is rapidly drifting to leeward, there is danger of swamping and much difficulty in getting her clear of the side. (4) Should it be
necessary to go alongside, it is preferable to run the bow or stern to the gangway or sea ladder, keeping her headed at right angles to the ship's keel, with oars out ready for pulling or backing away.
(5) An exception to the usual rule of boarding a drifting vessel to leeward occurs in the case of a vessel of very low freeboard, such as small schooners, etc. Board such craft on the weather quarter to avoid being stove in by her main boom, chains, etc.
NOTES ON HANDLING BOATS UNDER OARS.
86. (1) In going into a crowded or difficult landing, pull easily and keep the boat under control with the oars as long as possible, laying on oars if necessary, and boating oars only at the last moment.
(2) In going through a narrow entrance, get good way on the boat, then trail or toss the oars.
(3) Remember that a loaded boat holds her way much longer than a light one.
(4) In pulling across a current, try to get a range on two objects in line and steer by these to avoid being set down by the current.
(5) Having a long pull against the tide, run ashore, where the tide is slacker than in midstream, and where there is sometimes an eddy.
(6) There should always be a lantern, filled and trimmed, in the boat, and boats should never leave the ship for a trip of any great length without a compass. Weather is liable to thicken at any time, and a boat without a compass would have difficulty in reaching a landing or returning to the ship. For this reason, boat officers and coxswains of running boats should at all times know the compass course between the ship and landing; and if they are away from the ship and it begins to thicken, they should at once observe the compass course before the ship is shut in.
(7) In power boats, owing to deviation of the compass, coxswains must understand that the only way to obtain a correct compass course is to put the boat compass in its regular place, head the boat on the correct course, then read the compass course. If this is not done, considerable errors are liable to occur.
(8) At sea no boat should ever leave the ship without a compass, water, and provisions, and, excepting lifeboats, all boats sent away from a ship at sea will carry rifles and ammunition.
(9) Never go alongside a vessel which has sternboard or which is backing her engines.
(10) In coming alongside in a seaway or when a strong tide is running, warn the bowman to look out for the boat line which will be hove from the ship.
(11) If caught in a gale in an open boat, rig a sea anchor by lashing the
spars and sails together, sails loosed. Fit a span to this and ride by the painter. If there is oil in the boat, secure a bag of it to the sea anchor,
BOATS UNDER SAIL. 87. (1) The principles of boat sailing are the same for all rigs. The use of the lee oars is dangerous when under sail; a slight gust of wind lowers the gunwale so as to prevent the oars being lifted from the water, thus catching a crab, and the headway of the boat will cause the oars to fly violently fore and aft.
(2) The boat officer or coxswain shall never permit anyone to climb the mast of a boat. If halyards, brails, etc., are unrove, unstep the mast.
(3) Coming alongside under sail requires care, judgment, and experience. In the first place, it should not be attempted if a boat, or other obstruction which the mast could touch, overhangs the gangway, nor in rough weather when the rolling motion of the boat would cause the masts to strike the gangway platform. In such cases masts should be unstepped and the boat brought alongside under oars.
(4) If the ship is riding to a windward tide, approach the gangway from abaft the beam, tend all gear and shorten sail when boat has sufficient way to reach gangway. The bow and stroke oarsmen tend boat hooks, the other men performing their duties in shortening sail.
(5) If the ship is riding to the wind, approach the gangway from about abeam, tend all gear, bow and stroke oarsmen stand by with boat hooks; when there is sufficient way to make the gangway, command: “In jib and foresail." The jib tack and sheet are let go, jib smothered in to foremast; lower the foresail or brail it up, at the same time put the tiller hard down; haul main boom amidships or a bit on the weather quarter. This throws the boat's head into the wind, and hauling main boom to windward deadens her headway, when desirable. When alongside command: “In mainsail,” stow sails, and unstep, if desirable.
NOTE.-Motor sailing launches are now the only ship's boats supplied with jibs as a part of their standard equipment.
(6) The above is the surest and safest method, but with skillful handling all sails may be taken in together, the tiller put hard down, and boat rounded up to gangway. This requires more skill and judgment and should not ordinarily be attempted.
(7) If there is any current, make allowance for it by heading for a point farther forward or aft, as the case may be.
NOTE.-The following drills for boats equipped with the Navy standing lug rig, and for 50-foot motor sailing launch, with plates, were reproduced, by permission, from “Seamanship Department Notes, United States Naval Academy," published by the United States Naval Institute.
STANDING LUG RIG. DUTIES.
DRILL FOR NAVY STANDING LUG RIG (NO JIB).
1. BEING UNDER QARS, TO MAKE SAIL. COMMAND. 88. (a) Way enough...Oars are boated as before described. (6) Stand by to step All hands cast off spar covers and unlash masts.
sails from masts. Starboard thwartmen launch mainmast for
ward until heel of mast is even with step; halyard sheaves fore and aft, standing part of the halyards abaft the mast, and
raise the masthead slightly. Similarly,port thwartmen launchforemastto
position and raise the masthead slightly. The crew remain seated whenever their
duties will permit, always keeping down
in the boat. (c) Step the masts.....Starboard thwartmen stand on bottom
boards and raise mainmast. Port thwartmen stand on bottom boards
and raise foremast. Bow and stroke oarsmen get masts on proper
slew and when nearly vertical guide
them into the steps. Bow and stroke oarsmen and second bow
and second stroke set up shrouds. (d) Stand by to make Starboard thwartmen light the mainsail aft sail.
and hook on the yard; second starboard stroke secures the jaws of the main boom
in place. Second port stroke stands by to hoist away
on the halyards. Port thwartmen clear away the foresail and
hook on the yard; starboard bowman lashes tack of foresail to eyebolt in foremast; port bowman stands by to hoist away on halyards. Men most convenient pass sheets afton
their respective sides and tend them. Starboard stroke reports when ready aft. Starboard bowman reports when ready