« 이전계속 »
ADJUSTING REVERSE GEAR.
103. (1) If the gear slips while in the ahead position, set the friction up tighter. To do this back out the set screw on the collar and turn this collar on its thread to the right until the set screw comes opposite the next slot in the chock collar. Then set up the set screw.
(2) If the gear slips while in the astern position, tighten up the bolt which clamps the brake band together at the top, so that the brake band will keep the case from revolving;
(3) The gear case should be kept about half full of heavy transmission grease. It is made oil tight, and provided with an oil hole. The grease cup on the brake band should also be kept full of heavy grease. The brass collar on the friction take-up and the collar spanning the cone should be kept well lubricated. Both are drilled and marked for oil.
104. (1) Open all valves in gasoline line from tank to carburetor. (2) Open all valves in circulating water line.
(3) Prime cylinders by squirting gasoline through cocks in tops of cylinders.
(4) Leave cocks open, give flywheel one turn.
Turn engine over by using cranking lever, and engine should start if coil vibrates. After the engine has warmed up it should start by rocking the flywheel in the reverse direction, if the spark can be adjusted to fire just as compression takes place. As soon as the engine starts throw switch from battery to magneto and keep throttle partially closed to prevent racing of the engine. The needle valve in carburetor should be opened about three-quarters of a turn. Allow the engine to run a few minutes until each cylinder fires properly and the explosions are sharp and free from a muffled sound. When the clutch is to be thrown in, speed up the engine so that it will not be stalled from the heavy load put upon it. As the engine almost at once works under a full load, it may be necessary to make some slight adjustment of needle valve in order to have the engine fire properly. The oil should be watched almost constantly for several minutes after the engine is started to see that it drops regularly, and the cylinders should be felt to make sure that the circulating water is properly cooling the cylinders. After several minutes running, all the accessible bearings should be felt for any undue heating. If one cylinder should feel excessively hot it is a sign that something is wrong with the circulation of water around that cylinder. If one cylinder should feel excessively cool, it is a sure sign that something has gone wrong with the firing of that cylinder. (See Troubles.)
105. (1) Slow the engine down by closing the throttle and retard. ing the spark. Manipulate the clutch as necessary and then release it. Open throttle fairly wide to give the engine a spin and throw the starting switch on neutral. The engine will thus suck in several rich charges of mixture before it comes to rest. These charges will be helpful in starting again. Shut off gasoline near carburetor to prevent flooding of carburetor. If boat is to be secured for several hours, shut off all gasoline valves, lock double throw switch in neutral position in order that it will not be accidentally turned on battery, thus running them down before required for use.
106. (1) Keep the motor and all of its accessories clean, as this brings mal-adjustments to light and causes motor to run more smoothly. This cleaning includes gasoline strainer, carburetor, spark plugs, distributor, all electric connections, clutch, and working parts.
(2) Keep the bilges dry. A 6-foot length of hose, fitted with one coupling kept in the boat, will be usefuľ to be used as a suction to various pockets in boat if suction side of bilge pump becomes clogged. If water is allowed to splash about the machinery some electrical trouble is almost sure to follow.
(3) Drain circulating water from jacket cock when motor is to remain idle for several hours. This prevents the inside of cylinders from sweating, thus making starting easier; also prevents freezing in cold weather.
(4) Constantly watch the oil fed to insure a proper supply of oil. It is better to give the parts too much than too little oil, as too much oil simply means dirty parts; such as spark plugs and cylinders, whereas too little oil means that some part of the mechanism will sooner or later carry away.
(5) Keep a constant watch on the circulating water and always be satisfied that all valves in the line function properly.
107. (1) Don't crank the engine many times without looking for a cause of nonstarting.
(2) Don't allow the engine to run backward on the batteries. Throw switch on neutral and start again, ahead. (The magnetos are not made to generate except when the engine is running ahead.) If, however, the boat is hard aground it may be necessary to reverse the motor on the batteries with the clutch in ahead position in order to float the boat.
(3) Don't start the engine until the gasoline, oil, and circulating water can all flow freely to the engine.
(4) Don't start the engine with the clutch in. (5) Don't throw the clutch out without slowing down the engine. The engine is designed to work under full load, and the vibration caused by the racing of the engine under no load will eventually crack some casting or cause some part to work loose.
(6) Don't allow the clutch to slip, or it will become heated and worn. (See "Adjustment of Clutch or Reversing Gear.”)
(7) Don't allow the engine to run on the batteries any longer than is necessary for starting.
(8) Don't open the throttle when running without first advancing the spark. A retarded spark will heat the cylinders and make the engine consume too much gasoline.
CARE OF ENGINE.
108. (1) Adjust lubricator to give about 4 to 6 drops of oil per minute to each bearing. Never allow lubricator tank to be less than one-third full.
(2) If lubricator should temporarily fail to function, oil working parts by putting 1 pint of lubricating oil into gasoline tank with each 5 gallons of gasoline. The circulating pump in this case, however, must be oiled by hand.
(3) When running, fairly steadily, fill all grease cups once each week and put a small amount of oil in each day.
(4) Keep fresh oil to about 12 inch level in crank cases to prevent heating of crank-pin bearings. Clean out and refill once each week if engine is run steadily.
(5) Open cylinders occasionally only to wipe off carbon deposit and see if rings are sticking.
(6) Exert the greatest care to keep the magneto clean and dry. Oil with 1 drop of light oil (sperm oil is good) once a week.
(7) Occasionally put a small amount of kerosene into cylinders through priming cups before securing at night. This helps to keep the cylinders clean, and helps to prevent rings from sticking.
TROUBLES, 109. Engine stops or will not start.—Is there any, gasoline in the tank? Look; do not measure with dirty stick or wire. Are all gasoline. valves open? Try them all. Is your gasoline strainer clear? Examine it. If these are all right turn engine over to test compression. At the same time listen at coil to insure vibrator working well. If coil does not buzz, do not look further until adjustment has been made and coil buzzes satisfactorily. If engine still fails to start when coil buzzes, remove spark plugs, laying them on cylinders, so that terminal ends do not tangle." Crank engine slowly until coil vibrates and see if spark jumps across spark gap in plug. See if terminals are clean, and if not, clean them with emery cloth. If no spark yet comes in plug, disconnect wire from plug and hold end of wire near cylinder (about io of an inch) while engine is cranked slowly. If spark does not jump from end of wire to cylinder when vibrator buzzes, for the cylinder belonging to that wire, there must be something wrong between the batteries and end of wire. Go over all connections, making them bright and firm. If it is discovered that the batteries are run down they will have to be replaced or recharged. If a good spark can be obtained and engine still refuses after being primed, there might be a heated crank pin or piston stuck which can readily, be detected when cranking. Also, look for a leak around spark plug or priming cup. If needle valve in carburetor fails to close, shut off valve in gasoline line and drain carburetor. Then prime engine and start it, opening valve in gasoline line as soon as engine fires.
ENGINE FIRES IRREGULARLY.
110. Indicates loose or dirty ignition connections, faulty plugs, clogged gasoline pipe or needle valve in carburetor, sticking of float in carburetor, water in gasoline, or poorly adjusted carburetor.
LOSS OF POWER.
111. (1) Cylinder heads fouled by carbon. Exhaust pipe of muffler clogged; cylinders too cool; poor lubrication; wrong mixture which may be caused by leaky joints in piping, cylinder heads, and crank case.