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(2) Main bearings worn, causing loss of compression. Keep plenty of grease in cups.

KNOCKING.

112. (1) This indicates spark advanced too far. Sooted cylinder head or piston, loose connecting rod or flywheel, want of lubrication (or use of poor oil), hot engine, poor mixture, or too little throttle opening

(2) The thickness of a dime (about 0.05 inch) is an average setting for distance between points of a spark plug.

113. (1) In the case of motor boats the printed instructions for the care and operation of the engines, which may be found in the office of the engineer officer, must be thoroughly understood by the engineer and strictly followed.

(2) Safety precautions for the handling of gasoline are of greatest importance and should be strictly followed to avoid accident. These instructions are incorporated in Bureau of Steam Engineering circular letter D-2a, January 7, 1920, and may be obtained from the engineer officer's files. The coxswain and the engineer should thoroughly familiarize themselves with these important instructions and should as far as possible instruct their boat crews in them.

GASOLINE SAFETY PRECAUTIONS. 114. (1) Smoking and open lights should be forbidden in boats using gasoline engines.

(2) Ventilate thoroughly and frequently all spaces subject to accumulation of gasoline vapor.

(3) Do not use gasoline for cleaning purposes in an inclosed space unless unavoidable, in which case use small stoppered container and expose only small quantity at a time. Ventilate well.

(4) Keep all joints and seams as tight as possible to prevent leaks.

(5) Reduce possibility of sparks to a minimum. bearing in mind the possibility of sparks from radio apparatus, static electricity, moving belts, etc.

(6) While filling gasoline tanks (1) do not vent through manhole or into interior spaces; (2) close hatches and ports in vicinity of outboard vents; and (3) ventilate interior spaces thoroughly after tanks are filled and secured.

(7) Gasoline shall not be handled at night except in case of emergency

(8) Gasoline motor boats shall at all times carry on board a suitable fire extinguisher and a bucket (or box of equal capacity) of dry sand.

(9) The thorough instruction of all personnel in regard to the dangers and methods of preventing gasoline fires is of greater importance than any precautions that can be devised.

ARMED-BOAT EXPEDITIONS. 115. (1) There shall be no separate organizations or routine drills for “distant service” or “cutting-out” expeditions of armed detachments in boats. The landing-force organization shall be utilized in all cases where an armed force is needed. Certain section of a ship's landing force_Infantry or Artillery, or both—with the arms, provisions, boat equipment, etc., that may be required by the special circumstances of the service, shall be designated for the work in any case.

(2) One or more squads of a section may be retained on board ship if their presence is not necessary for the service for which the boat is being equipped.

(3) The necessary number of men shall be selected from the regular special details of the landing force-pioneers, messmen, signalmen, ambulance and ammunition parties—to accompany the expedition. These men may be distributed in the boats with the main body, or they may be assigned to separate boats, as occasion requires.

(4) It would be quite impossible to anticipate and provide for every emergency of service in boats. Each case must necessarily be handled as a separate problem, and the regulations for the organization, equipment, and instruction of the landing force and its various units, if carefully observed, can be made to supply the force-officers, men, and staff-that may be required in any case.

116. (1) When great haste is necessary, the combatant part of the expedition, or a portion of it, shall be embarked at once, with arms and ammunition, emergency rations for two days, stowed in haversacks, canteens, and regular boat breakers filled, the boat box and the boat equipment enumerated in articles 19, 22. Reserve ammunition, extra provisions, and special equipment shall follow in separate boats. The "firing line," so to speak, shall never be delayed, in an emergency, until extra provisions, water breakers, and other articles are hoisted from holds and storerooms. The fighting force must not be hampered, and material and supplies for its maintenance shall be supplied and forwarded without undue haste or confusion, but with all care and with every attention to detail.

(2) Communications between the expedition and the ship, by signal or otherwise, shall be provided for, in order that reserves of men and material may be supplied and forwarded, if necessary.

117. (1) It is evident that armed boats have so many possible uses that their complete enumeration would be difficult, and to provide efficiency for all such cases by routine drills would be impracticable.

(2) The final test in fitting out an expedition in any particular case would be: "Are the boats and the crews properly equipped and prepared for the service to be performed?”

118. (1) The method of landing an armed force is fully described in the Landing Force and Small-Arm Instructions, United States Navy.

CARE AND OPERATION OF BOAT GUNS AND SMALL ARMS.

119. (1) When rapid-fire and machine guns are mounted in ship’s boats care should be exercised that they are kept as dry as possible. To this end gun covers should be kept on at all times when firing is not probable. In case boat guns get wet, they should be carefully overhauled, cleaned, and oiled at the first opportunity. This is particularly true of machine guns, which should always be cleaned if circumstances permit after each day's use, regardless of whether they have gotten wet or not.

(2) The operation of rapid-fire and machine guns when mounted in boats does not differ materially from their operation when mounted on board ship or ashore. However, in order to overcome the difficulties of loading and pointing due to the unsteady gun platform which a small boat affords, it is necessary to carry out frequent drills with the gun mounted in the boat. It is only after considerable practice that the gun pointers as well as the loading crew can become proficient in firing from a boat under varying conditions.

(3) In order to reduce to a minimum the chances of their being fouled when coming alongside the ship or making a landing on shore, boat guns should always be secured in the fore-and-aft position when not manned.

(4) When boat guns are to be used to clear a beach prior to the landing of an armed force, boats should not be overcrowded with men of the landing force. The effectiveness of the fire from the boats will depend largely upon the free movement of the guns' crews and the proper supply of ammunition to the gun.

(5) A gunner's mate supplied with the proper tools and spare parts for the guns should be included in the boat guns' crew.

SMALL ARMS.

120. (1) When equipped for heavy marching order and embarked in ship's boats, rifles will necessarily be carried in the hand. When lightly equipped, however, or when men of the landing force will be required to man the oars, rifles should be slung, if the distance to shore is not great. If it is a long pull to the landing place, rifles should be laid flat on the bottom boards between the thwarts.

(2) When it is necessary to fire the rifles from the boat, the latter should be maneuvered so as to keep bow on or nearly bow on to the beach in order to present a smaller target, and to effect less roll. Especial care should be taken at all times to keep rifles dry.

(3) Men should be instructed regarding the importance of care in handling the rifle while embarking and disembarking to prevent injury to the sights or loss overboard.

ABANDON SHIP. 121. On signal for abandon ship the ship's company proceeds with the least possible delay, to stations and duties outlined in the "Ship and Gun Drills” and given in detail in the ship’s abandon ship bill.

122. Equipment.--Every boat used for abandoning ship should have the following equipment:

(1) The complete boat equipment, including, boat compass, tarpaulin, and medical box. Ārm curtains will not be carried unless required by special circumstances.

(2) Provisions and water, as prescribed in article 31 (1) and (2), or as much more as the boat will carry safely. When actually abandoning ship, if time permits and if landing is probable, a small quantity of salt, pepper, coffee, and sugar may be provided for use on shore, but this will not be required at ordinary drill.

At least two rifles and a supply of ammunition.

If possible, a sextant, Nautical Almanac, Bowditch's tables, chart, paper, and pencil. At least one boat, preferably that of the senior officer, must be so equipped.

123. At least two officers should go in every boat, if practicable, and carry service belt, revolver, ammunition, and binoculars if supplied.

124. Steamers.--Spars and sails are no longer provided for steamers, and therefore occasions will be more rare in which it would be advisable to hoist out the boilers. If abandoning ship at sea, or in very rough weather, it would be well to relieve the boat of that weight and encumbrance if there should be time; in smooth water near the land, the engine could be used to advantage, though the motor boats can probably do all the towing needed. If the boiler is to remain in the boat, fuel and water must be provided.

125. Secure. When "Secure" is sounded, boat crews will secure their boats, and return supplies; and divisions will fall in at quarters for muster. Boat officers shall report "Secure.”

126. Notes.—(1) The boat officer should see that all men stationed in his boat at this evolution are present and that they understand their duties. If a man is unavoidably absent, he should be notified, after the drill, of his station and duties.

(2) Boats (except dinghies) should have not less than 12 inches freeboard when fully manned and equipped. Ten inches is a fair freeboard for the dinghy class.

(3) Junior boats, which will usually not be able to obtain sextants, Nautical Almanacs, etc., will keep near senior boats, which are so equipped, after they abandon ship.

(4) The particular station of each man in a boat at abandon ship will be determined by the boat officer, and the men will be carefully drilled to take their stations quickly, quietly, and without crowding or confusion. The position of each article of equipment must also be carefully specified, and men stationed to stow articles must be thoroughly instructed with regard to the stowage; otherwise there will always be confusion of the personnel and slovenly stowage of the equipment.

FIRST AID FOR BURNS. 127. (1) Burns are the local effect of heat, either dry or moist.

(2) There are three degrees of burns-first degree, a mere reddening of the skin; second degree, the formation of blisters (these two degrees of burns are not followed by scarring, and, unless one-sixth of the body surface is involved recovery may be looked for); third degree, charring and destruction of the tissues.

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