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(3) Shock to the system is always present and is in direct proportion to the superficial extent of the burn. Pain increases the shock and should be relieved by full doses of tincture of opium. Quiet and gentleness in handling tend to limit shock. If the skin is cold and moist and the face is pale and the pulse very rapid, warmth in the form of hot-water bottles and blankets should be applied and stimulants, as hot tea or coffee, given.
(4) Gentleness in handling the injured part should be constantly kept in mind as rough manipulation and too much haste in removing adherent clothing augment the shock and increase the local injury. Cut the clothing away from the burned area and if it sticks first soak it in warm water or boric acid solution.
(5) Burns should be kept clean as they easily become infected. However, strong antiseptics should be avoided as they destroy the tissues and lower the vitality of the part to such an extent that infection is more likely.
(6) Clean burns with mild antiseptics, such as boric acid, tablespoonful to the pint of water, boiled to make it sterile. Gauze soaked in 2 per cent solution of picric acid and laid over burned area makes a splendid dressing. It can be held in place by a roller bandage or strips of adhesive.
(7) In case no first-aid material is at hand, cover burned area with any clean cloth, as a towel, handkerchief, or shirt, and keep patient quiet. Get drugs to relieve pain, and stimulants, and dressings as soon as possible. Keep patient warm.
(8) The whole first-aid treatment for severe burns consists in limiting the shock by quiet and careful handling and drugs to relieve pain. Stimulants and heat when indicated. The local injury should be covered with some clean soft material to protect the part from injury and infection. THE RESUSCITATION OF THE APPARENTLY DROWNED.
128. (1) Persons apparently drowned are suffering not only from the suffocating effects of water, but usually from exhaustion caused by struggling and shock from fright and cold as well. They should be promptly and gently removed from the water and efforts at resuscitation should be begun instantly.
(2) If there are others present beside yourself, send one man at once for help-to get a doctor and bring blankets, hot-water bottles, stretcher, etc. Keep some one to take turns with you in the laborious task of making the patient breathe.
(3) To remove water from the lungs. -Remove shirts; lay the patient on his face; clasp your hands under his abdomen and raise him in order to drain water from his lungs and air passages.
To remove water from the lungs.
(4) To clear air passages. -Turn him on his back quickly, placing a rolled shirt under his shoulders, and thoroughly wipe out his mouth and nose. Pull'his tongue well forward and tie it against the lower teeth by passing a shoestring or rubber band over it and under the chin, or hold it forward with a handkerchief secured by a pin stuck through the tongue. If ample help is available, let some one hold it out or slowly draw it out and let it go back by rythmic movements.
(5) To restore breathing.-(a) First motion: Place the man on his belly, with his face turned to one side; kneel beside him and place the palms of the hands on the back of his chest along the lower ribs; lean forward and gradually bring the weight of the body on the hands, thus forcing the air out of the lungs. Avoid roughness.
(6) Second motion: Release the pressure quickly and return to the original position. The first motion should occupy two or three seconds. After returning to the original position there should be a wait of about two seconds before repeating; thus there will be about 12 respirations each minute. Imitation of natural breathing is the object. These efforts should be kept up for at least two hours, or until natural breathing is restored.
(6) All wet clothing should be removed while artificial respiration is being practiced, and the body and limbs should be rubbed toward the heart. Blankets should be rapped about the patient and warmth in the shape of hot bottles, hot bricks. hot sand, or a hot board, that may have lain in the sun, should be applied.
To restore breathing. (Second part of first motion.)
(7) Do not give stimulants before the patient can swallow. Do not remove him until he is conscious and is breathing naturally.
MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION AND
DUTIES OF A BOAT OFFICER. NOTE. Owing to the fact that many boats do not have a boat officer, the general instructions for handling boats were written to cover the cases whero a coxswain has charge. Boat officers will also be governed by these instructions, in so far as they are applicable. The instructions under articles 134-136 apply to coxswains in the absence of boat officers.
134. (1) When ordered to take charge of a boat, the boat officer shall report promptly to the officer of the deck, dressed in the uniform of the day and with appropriate side arms.
(2) Sees boat lowered and manned, or manned at the boom and dropped down to the gangway. If boat was lowered for this duty, he sees boat falls hauled taut.
(3) Sees all required equipment is in boat, and that boat gear is in good order.
(4) Sees crew in place and in proper uniform, oars up and down, blades trimmed fore-and-aft, coxswain at his station.
(5) Reports to officer of the deck that boat is alongside, manned, and ready for duty. Receives orders and makes sure that he understands them perfectly before leaving ship.
135. (1) The boat officer shall at all times require that the crew preserve silence and pull a strong, regular stroke, that all rules concerning the handling and management of boats, whether under sails or oars, are carried out, that all boat salutes are promptly made or returned, and that prescribed rules for boat etiquette are strictly observed.
(2) In going alongside a man-of-war, use the port side, unless the boat officer is a commissioned officer, and except where there are commissioned officers or their guests in the boat or when only the starboard ladder is shipped. In all cases, however, the lee gangway should be used in heavy weather. Salute the colors, if hoisted, on stepping over the gangway and report to the officer of the deck.