페이지 이미지
PDF
ePub

not experience any perceptible change of wind, but would have a falling barometer and rapidly-increasing severity of the weather, if in front of the storm; and a rising barometer, with a gradual moderation of the weather, if in rear of the storm center.

If the ship be put before the wind and steered in one direction for a few hours, she will, if the storm be a revolving storm, change the wind, and reveal by this change the semicircle of the storm into which she has run.

To ASCERTAIN THE DIRECTION OF THE STORM TRACK BY IN. SPECTION.-In Piddington's Sailors' Hornbook, charts are found upon which are projected the tracks of a number of storms in the Atlantic and Indian Oceans and the China Seas, including the Bay of Bengal and a portion of the Pacific. An inspection of these charts will show that storms in particular localities generally travel in the same direction, and, ordinarily, the probable course of a storm may be found by inspection from one of these charts, the approximate position of the ship being known. But, as there is no absolute certainty that every storm will pass over the beaten track, no opportunity to verify the tracks on the charts or to ascertain by observation the approximate course of the storm should be neglected.

To Ascertain the Direction of the Storm by Observation The approximate direction of the storm track may be found by plotting the positions of the ship and center on two or more consecutive bearings, using an estimated distance on the first bearing, and keeping an accurate account of the ship's way during the interval between the bearings. It follows here, as a matter of course, that the greater the angle between the bearings used the better the results obtained by this method.

To obtain satisfactory results from any of the foregoing methods of observation the ship should be hove-to. Having determined the position of the ship in the storm disc, and the approximate direction of the storm's forward movement on its track, the Navigator may intelligently so dispose his vessel as to incur the minimum amount of danger or reap the maximum attainable advantage, as the case may be.

If it be necessary to distance the center or to run out of the storm disc, the following rules should be observed :

NORTHERN HEMISPHERE. Right SEMICIRCLE.—Haul by the wind on the starboard tack and carry sail as long as possible; if obliged to heave-to, do so on starboard tack.

LEFT SEMICIRCLE.—Bring the wind on the starboard quarter. Note the direction of the ship's head and steer that course. If obliged to heave-to, do so on port tack.

ON THE STORM TRACK. IN FRONT OF THE CENTER.-Square away and run before it. Note the course and keep it, and trim the yards when the wind draws on the starboard quarter. If, however, obliged to heave-to, do so on port tack.

IN REAR OF THE CENTER.-Run out with wind on starboard quarter, or heave-to on starboard tack.

SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE. Right SEMICIRCLE.-Bring wind on the port quarter. Note the course and keep it. If obliged to heave-to, do so on starboard tack.

LEFT SEMICIRCLE.-Haul by the wind on the port tack. Carry sail as long as possible, and if obliged to heave-to, do so on port tack.

ON THE STORM TRACK. IN FRONT OF THE CENTER.-Run before it. Note the course and keep it, and trim the yards as the wind gradually hauls on the port quarter. If obliged to heave-to, do so on the starboard tack.

IN REAR OF THE CENTER.–Run out with the wind on port quarter, or heave-to on port tack.

A rise in the barometer, improvement of the weather, and a gradual abatement of the force of the wind, will result from the above maneuvers; and the ship should in each case be kept on her course until by these signs it is made evident that she is out of danger.

All the above maneuvers depends, of course, on sea-room and the ability to carry sail. If sail can not be carried or land interferes the ship should be hove-to on the starboard tack in the Right Semicircle, and on the port tack in the Left Semicircle, and never otherwise.

A vessel lying-to on the port tack in the left semicircle in the Northern Hemisphere, and on the starboard tack in the right semicircle in the Southern Hemisphere, lies with her head toward the storm center, but there is no danger in this; as hoveto she will not head-reach to any great extent, and will therefore not approach the center so as to endanger the safety of the ship. A vessel so disposed comes up to the sea with every shift of wind and will ride out the gale safely, whereas if she is on the opposite tack she is headed off by every shift of wind and will eventually bring the sea on the beam and quarter, in which position, even if she does not founder, she is certainly likely to receive serious damage from the sea.

A vessel finding herself in a favorable place in the storm circle may safely run along with the storm in the following positions:

To Profit by the Storm.

NORTHERN HEMISPHERE. ist. In rear of center on the line of its axis. Wind on port beam.

2d. Anywhere in the right rear quadrant. Wind on port side abaft the beam. 3d. Abreast and to the right of the center. Wind aft.

SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE. ist. In rear of center on the line of its axis. Wind on starboard beam.

2d. Anywhere in the left rear quadrant. Wind on starboard side abaft the beam.

3d. Abreast and to the left of center. Wind aft.

INTERNATIONAL RULES.

1.-ENACTING CLAUSE, SCOPE, AND PENALTY.

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That the following regulations for preventing collisions at sea shall be followed by all public and private vessels of the United States upon the high seas and in all waters connected therewith, navigable by seagoing vessels.

ART. 30. Nothing in these rules shall interfere with the operation of a special rule, duly made by local authority, relative to the navigation of any harbor, river, or inland waters.

PRELIMINARY DEFINITIONS.

In the following rules every steam vessel which is under sail and not under steam is to be considered a sailing vessel, and every vessel under steam, whether under sail or not, is to be considered a steam vessel.

The words "steam vessel” shall include any vessel propelled by machinery.

A vessel is “under way,” within the meaning of these rules, when she is not at anchor, or made fast to the shore, or aground.

II.-LIGHTS, AND SO FORTH.

The word "visible” in these rules when applied to lights shall mean visible on a dark night with a clear atmosphere.

ARTICLE 1. The rules concerning lights shall be complied with in all weathers from sunset to sunrise, and during such time no other lights which may be mistaken for the prescribed lights shall be exhibited.

STEAM VESSELS-MASTHEAD LIGHT.

ART. 2. A steam vessel when under way shall carry-(a) On or in front of the foremast, or if a vessel without a foremast, then in the fore part of the vessel, at a height above the hull of not less than twenty feet, and if the breadth of the vessel exceeds twenty feet, then at a height above the hull not less than such breadth, so, however, that the light need not be carried at a greater height above the hull than forty feet, a bright white light, so constructed as to show an unbroken light over an arc of the horizon of twenty points of the compass, so fixed as to throw the light ten points on each side of the vessel, namely, from right ahead to two points abaft the beam on either side, and of such a character as to be visible at a distance of at least five miles.

STEAM VESSELS-SIDE LIGHTS.

(b) On the starboard side a green light so constructed as to show an unbroken light over an arc of the horizon of ten points of the compass, so fixed as to throw the light from right ahead to two points abaft the beam on the starboard side, and of such a character as to be visible at a distance of at least two miles.

(c) On the port side a red light so constructed as to show an unbroken light over an arc of the horizon of ten points of the compass, so fixed as to throw the light from right ahead to two points abaft the beam on the port side, and of such a character as to be visible at a distance of at least two miles.

(d) The said green and red side lights shall be fitted with inboard screens projecting at least three feet forward from the light, so as to prevent these lights from being seen across the bow.

STEAM VESSELS-RANGE LIGHTS.

(e) A steam vessel when under way may carry an additional white light similar in construction to the light mentioned in sub

« 이전계속 »