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knowledge of the distance from a fixed object by bearings of same, day's work by dead reckoning, latitude at noon by meridian altitude of the sun, international rules to prevent collisions, obtaining a course with parallel rules, marking of the lead line, and shall be subjected to such other examination of a nonmathematical character as the inspectors may determine. (Sec. 4440, R. S.)

INDORSEMENT OF MASTER'S OR MATE'S LICENSE AS PILOT. 31. Whenever a master or mate desires to act in the double capacity of master and pilot, or mate and pilot, and furnishes the necessary evidence of his qualifications, the local inspectors shall indorse such pilot routes on the certificate of license. (Sec. 4443, R. S.)

LICENSE OF OWNER AS MASTER OF STEAM YACHT. 32. Whenever the owner of a steam or sailing yacht of over 100 gross tons, who has had three years' experience in sailing such vessels, applies for a license authorizing him to act as master of steam yachts for coastwise and ocean navigation, the local inspectors shall examine the applicant as to his knowledge of the rules of the road, fog signals, signal lights (inland and international); the use of the lead and line; the use of the patent and chip logs, the compass, variation and deviation of the compass, the use of the drag, the use of oil during storms, bell signals between pilot house and engine room, handling of steam vessels, laws of storms, course and distance by chart, keeping the log book, middle latitude sailing, Mercator's sailing, method of obtaining latitude and longitude by dead reckoning, latitude by altitude of either the sun, moon, or stars; longitude by chronometer (time sights). Practical problems shall be given in the subjects of latitude and longitude. The examination shall be in writing, which shall be kept on file in the office of the local inspectors. If said examination is satisfactory to the local inspectors, they shall issue to the applicant a master's license authorizing him to discharge the duties of master of steam yachts, either for coastwise or ocean navigation. (Secs. 4439, 4442, R. S.)

MASTER, MATE, AND PILOT OF STEAM PILOT, FISHING, PORTO RICAN,

AND HAWAIIAN VESSELS. 33. Any applicant for original license to act as master of steam pilot boats, or of steamers navigating the waters of the whaling grounds in the Alaskan seas, or of steamers engaged exclusively in the business of whale fishing, or of steamers engaged in the Atlantic, Pacific, or Gulf coast fisheries, or of steam or sail vessels navigating between ports of the Hawaiian Islands, or between ports of the island of Porto Rico, shall have had at least three years' experience in the deck department of such steamers, which fact shall be verified by documentary evidence; and such applicant shall only be subjected to such examination as shall satisfy the inspectors that the applicant is capable of navigating such vessels: It is provided, That any person who has had at least five years' experience on sail vessels licensed in the fisheries of the United States, two years of which have been as master or mate of such sailing vessels, may be examined for license as master or mate of steam fishing vessels to be employed and exclusively in the Atlantic, Pacific, and Gulf coast fisheries. The license issued under this section shall state in the body thereof "for coastwise only,” Pacific or Atlantic coast, as the case may be, and between what ports on either of said coasts.

It is further provided, That any applicant for original license who has had three years' experience in the deck department on steam pilot boats, or who has had two years' experience in the deck department on steam pilot boats and one year's experience on sail pilot boats, shall be eligible for examination for license as mate of steam pilot boats.

It is further provided, That said master's or mate's license may be indorsed as pilot on such inland waters on the abovenamed coasts as the local inspectors at the various ports may find the holder qualified to act on as pilot, after examination by the local inspectors, such examination to be in writing and preserved in the files of the inspectors' office. (Secs. 4439, 4440, 4442, R. S.)

PUGSLEY'S TIDES

PRICE $2.00

AN EXAMINATION SPECIALTY

Prepared expressly for those wishing to be examined for a United States Local Inspectors License

as master of ocean steamers.

The only work ever published containing a proper collection of examples worked out and explained

in detail.

For Sale by All Dealers, or Will Be Mailed Post Paid

to Any Address Upon Receipt of Two Dollars, by

R. M. PUGSLEY 17 SOUTH STREET

NEW YORK

Capt. R. M. Pugsley's

Transparent Storm Cards

Price, $1.00
BOTH HEMISPHERES

FOR SALE BY ALL DEALERS

This instrument is transparent and represents the

rotary storm

Instructions for the Use of CAPT. R. M. PUGSLEY'S STORM CARDS Having acquired a general knowledge of the subject from the accompanying matter, from Bowditch, place the center of the Storm Card for the proper hemisphere on the storm track, so that it will correspond with the magnetic compass. Then locate the ship on the card, and follow the directions given.

Sent to any address on receipt of price, by

CAPT. R. M. PUGSLEY 17 South Street

New York City

Examples: NORTHERN HEMISPHERE.—Storm track N. E. and the wind S. E. Then the ship is on the storm track and the STORM CARD gives the following directions:

If the wind changes to the southward, heave to on the starboard tack. If the wind changes to the eastward, run N. N. W. or heave to on the port tack.

SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE.—Storm track S. E. and the wind N. E. Then the ship is on the storm track and the STORM CARD gives the following directions:

If the wind changes to the northward, heave to on the port tack. If the wind changes to the eastward, run S. S. W. or heave to on the starboard tack.

If in either case the wind does not change, run on the course indicated on the proper card.

WINDS. The term Variabie has been defined in its general sense, or as compared to the terms Constant and Periodical. But, in Navigation, it is used in a special sense, that is, in designating and recording certain winds in the columns of the Log-Book. It is often misapplied, by seamen, to denote an unsteady wind, which, during the period of observation, may have veered and hauled through several points. In such cases the direction of the wind should be averaged to the nearest whole point. The term Variable should not only be used to designate very light airs flying all round the compass.

It was remarked by Lord Bacon and other writers, both in Europe and America, that the wind more frequently veers with the sun's motion, or passes round the compass in the direction of N., N. E., E., S. E., S., S. W., W., and N. W., to N. This follows in consequence of the influence of the earth's rotation in changing the direction of the wind. Dové has the merit of having, from Hadley's principle, propounded the law of rotation of the wind, and proved that the whole system of atmospheric currents, the permanent, periodical, and variable winds, obey the influence of the earth's rotation.

An important characteristic of winds is their quality, being dry or humid, warm or cold, according to their direction, and the nature of the earth's surface over which they have passed. Thus, in the northern hemisphere southerly winds are and moist, while northerly winds are_cold and dry; and in the southern hemisphere vice versa. In Europe westerly winds are

warm

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