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Bulletins for 1.900.

Bulletins for 1910.

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To His Excellency, GOVERNOR W. W. KITCHIN.

SIR:In compliance with section 3944 of the Revisal of 1905, I submit the following report of the operations of the Department of Agriculture for the years 1909 and 1910:

AGRICULTURAL CONDITIONS. This has been one of the most noted agricultural epochs in the history of the State; greater advances have been made in the science, and the farmers are in better condition than they have been for number of years.

The census of 1900 gave the proportion of its citizens engaged in farming as 81 per cent, i. e., four-fifths; and the improved condition of the financial status of the people is due to the improvement among the farmers. If four out of five of our citizens are in easy circumstances it must have an influence upon the other man. This has been fully illustrated by the reverse conditions in the recent past: the farmers, or four-fifths of the people, have been financially depressed, and this has affected the condition of all. If the farmers remain in the present state this desirable state will continue.

In the period “before the war” the farmers were prosperous and contented. Reconstruction, with its other evils, gave us the credit or mortgage farming. Our farmers ceased to make the supplies necessary to maintain their farms, and depended upon buying their supplies with the money received from the cotton crop generally, but in some sections tobacco was the so-called money crop.

The Department, at its reorganization in 1899, called the attention of the people to the changed condition financially of the farmers and to its cause, urging a return to the manner of conducting a farm which had been in vogue in the period of happiness and contentment. By institutes and demonstrations they were urged to make the change. It was slow work at first, and but few attended the meetings, but the work was steadily pressed. Especially was it shown that a supply of corn raised on the farm sufficient for its support was a necessity. Gradually the people awakened to this, and the average of corn produced upon an acre of less than fifteen bushels

per acre has been increased to twenty bushels; most of this has been done in the past two years. The average for the United States is twenty-five bushels. It is believed that this will be reached and surpassed in the next few years. One hundred bushels to the acre is now quite common in this State. Mr. J. F. Batts, of Wake County, holds the State record at 226 2-3 bushels, and this has been surpassed in only a few instances in the nation. It has attracted attention to the State, especially from farmers of the Northwestern States, and many of them are moving or thinking of moving to our borders.

The United States reports the value of the crop of North Carolina for the year 1910, as compared with a five years' average, at 123 per cent, or nearly one-fourth increase; the increase for 1910 over 1909 being seven per cent. The corn crop of North Carolina for 1910 is given as 57,754,000 bushels.

For the past five years the corn crop of the State is reported to have been : 1909.

41,383,000 bushels. 1908.

50,166,000 bushels. 1907.

45,078,000 bushels. 1906.

41,796,846 bushels.

This shows an increase of more than 16,000,000 in 1910 over the crop of the preceding year. This was not produced by increasing the labor of that year by near forty per cent over that of 1909, but the knowledge gained at the institutes and demonstrations enabled the farmers to produce the increase with less manual labor.

One of the heaviest losses by the farmer has been the importation into the State and the purchase largely by him of commodities that should be produced here; these are grain, hay, flour, meat, canned goods and other rations for man and beast. The value of these importations has been equal to the amount of money received for the cotton crop of the State, so that there is left from the money received for the cotton only the profit which the merchant receives from the sales. Attention has been called to this, and there is a decided improvement, especially as to corn, hay and canned goods. The amount that will be sent out of the State for this purpose will be considerably less in future.

The raising of stock, especially hogs, is urged, and there will be more pork for home consumption this year than in several recent ones.

DRAINAGE.

This is a most important item to the farmer. The National Department has furnished estimates of cost and plans for drainage in several counties, the work being conducted under the laws of the State, which now give machinery for almost any kind of work, however small or great. The national government has contributed largely to furnishing water to the arid lands of the West so as to make them valuable for cultivation. This State has the opposite of these conditions. There are many thousands of acres of the very best agricultural lands which are not available because of too much water. It is the same principle, on one water is to be brought to the lands, on the other it is to be carried away—each for the same purpose, i. e., to render the land useful for the production of corps. Drainage with us also makes the country around healthy by destroying the malaria-producing areas. Among the most violent diseases of the State is malarial fever.

PUBLIC ROADS. The preceding Legislature transferred the supervision of this work to the Geological Survey. There has been advance in the matter all over the State, and there is scarcely a county that has not some law for the betterment of its roads.

VACANCIES ON THE BOARD.

The terms of Messrs. Dunn, of the Third District, McCallum, of the Sixth District, and Shuford, of the Ninth District, expire March 9, 1911. Hon. Ashley Horne, of the Fourth District, resigned to become a candidate for the Legislature. His term expires March 9, 1913.

THE NEW BUILDING,

The Board has developed the best Department of Agriculture in the Southern States, when practical work done and results achieved are considered. For the active prosecution of its work a suitable building would be very helpful. The building now occupied is unfitted for the purposes for which used; it was built more than seventy years ago for a hotel. The foundation is not laid in lime mortar. Some of the sills rotted, and those which replaced them. are not properly located. The east wall is out of plumb. The house was condemned and closed before the war. During the war it was used as office for the Adjutant General's Department of the State and a Confederate quartermaster. After the war it was again opened as a hotel, but was condemned and closed, and, as a condemned building, was bought by the Department of Agriculture. The foundation is insufficient, and, if sufficient, the building can not be changed to such conditions as is desirable for the work of the Department.

If the State will erect a commodious building and assign the Depart-' ment ample room of suitable arrangement for its work this would be satisfactory. The work of the Department differs from that of the other branches of the State government, and its offices can not be conveniently mixed with those of other branches for good service.

If such a building is not erected then the Board requests authority, as was granted relating to the building of the agricultural building of the A. and M. College, to build upon its lot a suitable structure for its work.

THE DEBT ON THE AGRICULTURAL BUILDING AT THE A. AND M. COLLEGE.

Since the last report twenty thousand dollars and the interest has been paid on this debt. There is still $10,000 due and interest on $4,000 since June 1, 1910. It is respectfully asked that the Legislature allow this to be paid with as much of the surplus from the oil inspection as may be necessary. This debt has retarded the proper work of the Department, and payments upon it have sometimes caused a deficit at the close of our financial year.

When the Board of Agriculture was the Board of Trustees of the college such a building was a necessity for the efficient teaching of agriculture, and with the consent of the Legislature the erection of this building was undertaken. Now that the direct, practical work of the Department requires such heavy outlay, the Board requests this relief.

BULLETINS.

The monthly issue continues; those published during the past two years are, in practical value, equal to any that have been issued. Those on home canning, insects injurious to tobacco, and seed corn selection

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