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Española with their booty, having lost near 700 men. The old buccaneer, De Graff, was one of the commanders upon this expedition. Du Casse was accused by his followers of appropriating too large a share of the plunder to himself and the officers; but his government approved his conduct, for they settled upon him for life 100 pistoles per annum for his services upon this occasion.
Five sail and a fre-ship sailed from Jamaica, to annoy the French in St. Domingo: they anchored in Leogane Roads the Ilth of October, and battered Esterre from eight in the morning till three in the evening, burnt one vessel, and proceeded to the Isle Avache, where they destroyed the huts.
Colonel Francis Russel was appointed governor of Barbadoes, to supersede Colonel Kendall, who was made one of the Lords of the Admiralty. The Assembly voted £2000 to their new governor. At this time an epidemical sickness raged both by sea and land, which obliged the Assembly to pass an act for manning two men of war which lay in Carlisle Bay, for the protection of the island.
The Hannibal, of London, Thomas Phillips, master, arrived at Barbadoes on the 4th of November, with a cargo of Negroes : she had been two months and eleven days on her passage from St. Thomas', had buried fourteen of her crew, and 320 Negroes, which, he coolly says, “was a great detriment to our voyage, the Royal African Company losing £10 by every slave that died, and the owners of the ship £10 10s., being the freight agreed on for every Negro delivered alive ashore to the African Company's agent at Barbadoes.” Phillips says, “ No gold-finders can endure so much noisome slavery as they do who carry Negroes. I delivered alive at Barbadoes 372, which being sold, came out at about #19 per head, one with another."
The Hannibal was 450 tons burthen, and carried thirty-six guns. Three weeks before she arrived at Barbadoes, a hurricane had “ put most of the ships in the road ashore.”
His Majesty's ship Tiger, Captain Thomas Sherman, had been on that station for two years, during which time 600 men had been buried out of her, although her complement was but 200. Phillips asserts that Captain Sherman told him so.
About this time some Englishmen, with their families, removed from Anguilla to the Virgin Islands, where they made considerable improvements : they were governed by a deputygovernor and council, nominated from among themselves. There
Charlevoix, tom. iv. pp. 37. 40. 45, 46.
Long's Jamaica, vol. ii. p. 68. Colquhoun's Brit. Emp. p. 354. Harris's Voyages, vol. ii. p. 285.
Churchill's Collection, vol. vi. p. 253.
were no taxes. Money, when wanted for public purposes, was raised by voluntary subscription.
Liables, posreo station
By the 7 & 8 W. III. c. 22. “ Goods are to be imported and exported from and to the plantations in ships built in England or Ireland, or the said plantations; and navigated with the master and three fourths of the mariners of the said places, on pain of forfeiting ship and goods, &c. And all ships lading or unlading any goods at any of the plantations in America, and the masters and commanders thereof, shall be subject to the same rules, visitations, searches, penalties, and forfeitures as ships and their ladings are liable to in England ; and the officers for collecting the customs there, shall have the like powers as the officers of the customs in this kingdom ; and persons assisting in concealments shall be subject to the like penalties.”
The French colonists of Santa Cruz, under the command of Le Sieur Galifet, joined those at St. Domingo the 2d of February. Previous to their departure from Santa Cruz, instructions had been sent from France to burn all the houses, spoil the harbour, and if any of the inhabitants refused to embark, to use force to oblige them. They had offended the French government by carrying on a contraband trade with the Danes at St. Thomas'. The colony consisted of 147 men, with women and children in proportion, and 623 Negroes.
The Assembly at Barbadoes voted £2000 to the Honourable Francis Russel, their governor, in addition to the £2000 given him the year before.
Admiral de Pointis, commanding the French expedition to Carthagena, passed within sight of Barbadoes. It was thought that the agents of the pirates had shipped off for Madagascar all the gunpowder; for at that time there was not in all the forts upon the island seven rounds of powder.
Francis Russel died, and Francis Bond, the President of the Council, succeeded him as governor of Barbadoes. Under Mr. Bond's administration an act was passed, allowing the solemn affirmation of the Quakers to be accepted, instead of an oath in the usual form.
Commodore Wilmot sailed from Jamaica with 1200 troops,
Jacob's Law Dictionary, Plantations. Labat, tom.vï. p. 107. Charlevoix, tom. iv, p. 80. Coke's West Indies, vol. ii. p. 117.; vol. iii. p. 162.
Univ. Hist. vol. xxxvi. pp. 205. 316.
under the command of Colonel Lilliston, to attack the French in San Domingo, and landed them within three leagues of the Cape. The attacks upon the fort failed the first day, but the next night the French blew up the fort, set fire to the town, and marched off in the dark, leaving førty pieces of cannon fit for service. De Graff's wife and two children were taken prisoners.'
Port au Paix was next attacked, and the garrison abandoned the fort in the night, but fell into an ambuscade, and most of them were taken or killed. The victors destroyed the fort, and carried away eighty pieces of cannon. Nothing further was done: the land and sea officers disagreed, and the expedition returned. The Spaniards also who joined the expedition disagreed with the English, and greatly contributed to its failure.
admission the West Indiesman, and such
There was an act passed this year in Jamaica, which enjoined. masters to instruct their slaves, and not to “ fail to exhort all male and female slaves who may be unbaptised, to receive the sacrament of baptism." There was no penalty for non-compliance.
Though inefficient in this respect, the act is remarkable, as containing the only efficient religious slave-law which can be found : it prevents the slave being made a free man · by his admission into the Christian church. The first founders of slavery in the West Indies held it to be incompatible with the condition of a Christian man, and such as Pagans or Infidels could alone be lawfully subjected to, and that, consequently, baptism was a virtual enfranchisement. These legislators, therefore, dealt sincerely and efficiently with this subject, when they enacted, “ that no slave shall be free by becoming Christian.”
Lord Coke held the opinion, that Pagans were to be treated as perpetual and irreclaimable enemies.
By the same act, if a slave who had been three years in the island ran away, and continued absent from his master twelve months, he was declared to be rebellious, and transportation to
that, consequ there
Berpetual and irrect opinion, that Pachecoming Christian ney
be hisPuhe was declared ntinued absent fieem three year
By sect. 23. directions were given for proceeding against slaves, upon complaints of “ felony, burglary, robbery, burning of
Charlevoix, tom. iv. p. 65.
Stephen on West Indian Slavery.
"He had married her, because one day, when she fancied herself offended by him, she went with a pistol in her hand to reduce him to reason. This action ap
peared to him so gallant, that he judged the Amazon worthy to be his wife.Char. levoir, tom. iv. p. 57.
houses or canes, rebellions, conspiracies, or any other capital offence whatsoever."
By sect. 24. “ Compassing or imagining the death of a white person,” by any slave or slaves, was made punishable with death. But, except in cases of murder, only one of the criminals was to suffer death, as exemplary to the rest.
It will be seen (by the act of 1744) that breaches of this restriction were declared to be and to have been legal.
Sect. 32. had a retrospective action : it enacted, that “ if any Negro, or any slave or slaves, before the making of this act, have maliciously given or attempted to give, or shall hereafter maliciously give, or attempt to give, to any person whatsoever, whether free or slave, any manner of poison, although the same was never taken, or if taken, death did not ensue upon the taking thereof, the said slave or slaves, together with their accessaries, as well before as after the facts (being slaves), shall be guilty of murder, and shall be condemned to suffer death by hanging, burning, or such other ways or means as to the justices and freeholders shall seem convenient.”
Stolen goods found in the custody of a slave, such slave, on conviction of receiving, knowing them to have been stolen, to suffer death, transportation, dismembering, or other punishment, at the discretion of two justices and three freeholders.
All masters of slaves to have one acre of ground well planted with provisions for every five slaves, under penalty of forty shillings for every acre deficient.
A slave killing a rebellious slave, or taking him, to receive forty shillings, and a coat with a red cross upon it.
Pregnant convicts to be respited from execution until after delivery.
Nicholas Trott, Esquire, who had succeeded Mr. Jones as governor of New Providence, built a fort at the town of Nassau. Notwithstanding which, Avery the pirate forced the inhabitants to let him have what provisions he wanted ; but afterward, Governor Trott so improved the defences of the island, that the French were several times repulsed, and obliged to retire with
The British Parliament enacted, that private traders should have liberty to trade for slaves upon the coast of Africa; but
Stephen on West Indian Slavery, pp. 287. 320. Harris's Voyages, vol. ii. p. 285. Atkins's Voyage to the West Indies, p. 154. Long's Jamaica, vol. i. p. 78. ; vol. ii. pp. 485. 490. Jacob's Law Dict. Plantation,
allowed the African Company ten per cent. from them, towards defraying their extraordinary expences.
Sir William Beeston, the principal commissioner of the Viceadmiralty Court at Jamaica, settled the fees :
On the condemnation or acquittal of every vessel, £3 10s.
On the first €100 value of vessel and goods condemned, whether captured from the enemy, or seized for breach of the acts of trade, £3.
And for every other £100 value, #1 per cent. :
By 9 & 10 W.III. “ No governor abroad shall be a factor or agent, under the penalty of £500.”
Extract from the “ Traité de Paix entre Louis le Quatorzième, Roi de France, et les Seigneurs Etats Generaux des Provinces-Unies de Pais-Bas. Fait à Ryswick, le 20 Septembre, 1697.”
" 8. Tous les pays, villes, places, terres, forts, isles, et seigneuries, tant au dedans qu'au dehors de l'Europe, qui pourroient avoir été pris et occupés depuis le commencement de la present guerre, seront restitués, de part et d'autre, au même etat, qu'ils etoient pour les fortifications lors de la prise, et quant aux autres edifices, dans l'etat qu'ils se trouveront, sans qu'on puisse y rien detruire n'y deteriorer, sans aussi qu'on puisse pretendre aucun dedommagement pour ce qui auroit pu estre demoli.”
“ 14. Il a été accordé et convenu, qu’arrivant cy-apres quelque interruption d'amitié ou rupture entre la couronne de France et lesdits Seigneurs Etats desdites Provinces-Unies (ce qu'à Dieu ne plaise !) il sera toujours donné neuf mois de temps apres ladite rupture aux sujets de part et d'autre, pour se retirer avec leurs effets, et les transporter ou bon leur semblera. Ce qu'il leur sera permis de faire, comme aussi de vendre ou transporter leurs biens et meubles en toute liberté, sans qu'on leur puisse donner aucun empêchement, ni proceder pendant lesdit tems de neuf mois à aucune saisie de leurs effets, moins encore à l'arrest de leurs personnes.”
Upon the 20th of September, 1697, a treaty of peace between Louis the Fourteenth, King of France, and Charles the Second, King of Spain, was signed at Ryswick. By the 26th article, in case of a rupture between the two powers, the subjects of both parties are to be allowed six months to transport their effects and persons wheresoever they may choose.
The following articles of the treaty - concluded in the royal palace at Ryswick, the 20th day of September, 1697,” between
Du Mont, tom. vii. partie 2. pp. 381. 408.