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cable : all the batteries were ordered to play upon it, and preparations made for storming the suburbs. M. du Casse marched at the head of the grenadiers, although his wound required rest; the adventurers, commanded by M. Macharis, followed, and then the rest of the army — they issued from the trenches at the end of the bridge. The bastion of St. Catharine, in the city, commanded the spot, and killed a great number. Planks were laid over the draw-bridge, which the besieged had broken to pieces upon the night of the 28th, after it was cut down, and the assailants passed on to the breach under a tremendous fire. It was only practicable for one man at a time. Here the Spanish lancers did great execution with their long lances : they were nine and ten feet long, and the men could throw them twelve or fifteen yards with unerring certainty. The batteries were lined with these men. Several officers were killed and wounded, Vice Admiral the Comte de Coetlogon was mortally wounded. The commander-in-chief's nephew, Le Chevalier de Pointis, Ensign de Vaisseau, had his knee broken. Many were wounded in pursuing the Spaniards, when they abandoned “ Gezemanie,” to save themselves in Carthagena. If the daylight had lasted one hour longer, the assailants would have entered the city with the fugitives.
The French gave no quarter, 200 Spaniards who sought refuge in a church, were put to the sword; indeed, every person that could be found, except the governor, who had himself carried in his easy chair to the breach, to animate the men, and only left it when he saw all was lost.
After the French were masters of “ Gezemanie,” (Charlevoix calls it “ Hihimani,”'] they approached the bridge which communicated with the city, as close as possible. The besieged made two sorties, but were driven back both times with loss.
An intrenchment was thrown up across the street opposite the bridge, to cover the guard from the incessant fire of the city.
The rest of the troops were sheltered in the houses, and two days were passed in dressing the wounded, in turning the guns of Gezemanie upon the city, and in making batteries to breach the walls. The garrison had six months provisions. The city was surrounded with a fosse filled with water, and there were eighty pieces of cannon upon the ramparts.
Another alarm was given of the approach of 2000 Indians, and 500 adventurers were sent to oppose them, but none were to be seen. Two white flags were hoisted in the city.
The 2d of May, the Sceptre and Vermandois battered the city all day. At three P.M. the besieged demanded to capitulate; but a message was sent to the governor, that no conference would be held with him, unless he ordered the Indians to retire. into the city to hear their proposals; but the governor would treat only with M. de Pointis. Four Spaniards of high rank were deputed to know his sentiments. After a long dispute, M. de Pointis told them, that if the propositions he had made were not accepted, they might retire. They asked until the next day, as they had not power to conclude the negociation.
The 3d of May, the governor sent to say he would sign the capitulation. The inhabitants of the city, terrified at the example of Gezemanie, were clamorous for the surrender, and forced him to accept the following terms:
- Art. 1. The governor, with the troops and militia composing the garrison who wish to follow him, shall march, drums beating, match lighted, and with two pieces of cannon. The governor may also carry with him all his effects.
• 2. No damage shall be done to the churches.
6 3. The guns, all the treasure and other property belonging to the Catholic King, shall be immediately placed in the hands of M. de Pointis, by those who have the charge of them, with their account books.
66 4. Every person who chooses may quit the city, leaving all their goods, except such clothes and money as may be left them to travel with, and slaves according to their rank.
66 5. The merchants shall carry their account books to M. de Pointis, and shall deliver up all the money and other effects, which they may have in charge for their correspondents.
66. The inhabitants who may choose to remain under obedience to His Most Christian Majesty shall enjoy the same privileges, rights, and immunities which they enjoyed under His Catholic Majesty. They shall be left in peaceable possession of their goods, with the exception of gold, silver, and precious stones, which they shall be held bound to give a faithful account of; in which case one-half shall be left with them- otherwise the whole shall be taken away.”
After the articles were signed, a detachment of adventurers was to occupy one side of the bastions which the governor had given up, and one side of the gates of the city — the troops entered immediately, seized the ramparts, and all the avenues.
The soldiers and sailors were forbidden to enter any of the houses upon pain of death. The admiral's carpenter was caught plundering : he confessed his guilt, and had his head cut off upon the spot.
Upon the 4th of May, the governor, followed by 700 men under arms, marched out. M. de Pointis entered immediately afterwards, and proceeded to the cathedral, where he heard Te Deum chaunted. After this ceremony, he went to his lodgings at the consedorie, a magnificent house, where the royal treasures were deposited.
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Notwithstanding the inhabitants brought their money, some individuals to the amount of 400,000 dollars, a general search was made throughout the town, and a vast quantity of the precious metals found. Every article of the capitulation was broken by the conquerors. The churches were plundered, the women violated. De Pointis is said by his countryman (Charlevoix) to have tolerated actions which dishonored the French name in America.
Some of the inhabitants, in consequence of the excesses of the soldiers, hired parties of the adventurers to protect their houses, and in many instances this was faithfully done.
M. de Pointis declared that his orders were to keep possession of the three forts, and appointed M. de Galifet, governor of the city, with ten companies of infantry, eighty Negroes, and 150 adventurers, to guard the harbour. But the excesses of the troops, and the climate, soon obliged the conquerors to abandon all hopes of keeping the place. Their numbers diminished daily : 800 died in six days.
The plunder was therefore embarked. Eighty-six brass guns were shipped from the batteries - the iron ones were burst. The fortifications were blown up. Upon the 27th, Fort St. Lazare was blown up, and part of Bocca Chica upon the 28th, and upon the same day the fleet anchored off it.
M. du Casse waited upon M. de Pointis for the adventurers' share of the plunder, which, to his surprise, amounted to only 40,000 dollars.
Upon the 1st of June, after entirely destroying the fort at Bocca Chica, the fleet sailed to water at La Grande Riviere.
After M. du Casse had made his report to the adventurers, they resolved to return to Carthagena, declaring that the dog, De Pointis, had left their share there, and swearing that they would never return to San Domingo again. De Pointis was too ill to attend to any thing. Du Casse made an ineffectual attempt to persuade them that he would get justice done them by the King: no regard was paid to him. They returned to the unhappy city, shut up all the men in the cathedral, and demanded five millions to ransom their lives. Some were frightened, others tortured. In one day more than a million of dollars were brought. After remaining four days, the adventurers reimbarked with their plunder, having first divided the gold and silver, which amounted to a thousand crowns a man. The merchandize was to be divided when they arrived at the Isle Avache.
They had only proceeded about thirty leagues, when they fell
Charlevoix, tom. iv. p. 173.
in with the combined English and Dutch fleets. « Le Christ," commanded by M. Cotuy, with 250 men, and more than a million of money (crowns I suppose), was captured by the Dutch. Le Cerf-volant, Captain Pierre, equally richly laden, was taken by the English; a third was driven on shore at San Domingo, and burnt; and a fourth was driven on shore near Carthagena, where her crew were obliged to work at rebuilding the fortifications which they had ruined. The five others, com manded by the Captains Blanc, Pays, Sales, Macari, and Blouc, with difficulty got into different ports in Española. In July, however, the English squadron, under Admiral Meese, landed at Petit Goave, and carried off 120,000 livres, in gold and silver, of this cruelly-acquired plunder, and burnt forty-two houses in the town. Forty-nine of the English were killed, and seventeen taken prisoners.
Du Casse was honoured with the cross of St. Louis for his services at Carthagena, and orders were given that 1,400,000 livres should be distributed among the freebooters for their share, out of what De Pointis had carried away.
Notwithstanding the extreme repugnance of many of the inbitants, he removed them all from Port de Paix to the plain of Cape François.
Nicholas Webb, Esquire, arrived at Providence as governor of the Bahama Islands, to succeed Mr. Trott. The population of the islands was estimated at 1000. souls.
Admiral Nevil, the commander of the English fleet, in compliance with his instructions, called at the Havannah to take the galleons under convoy to Europe; but the Spaniards were jealous, and refused to admit him into the harbour: he then proceeded to Virginia, and died, it is said, of a broken heart. He had been unsuccessful in a chase after Admiral De Pointis, whose ships were full of the plunder gained at Carthagena, and very badly manned.
Ralph Grey, Esquire, arrived at Barbadoes the 26th of July, as governor of the island. The Assembly voted him £2000, and £500, for the rent of a house, the governor's house being out of repair. · Colonel Codrington dying, was succeeded, as captain-general of the Leeward Islands, by his son Christopher.
Univ. Hist. vol. xxxvi. pp. 289. 317. 206.
Coke's West Indies, vol, ii. p. 117.
Harris's Voyages, vol. ii. p. 205.
Edwards, vol. i. p. 547.
of Ryswas it prevedy penetratishich the
enced their dy penetratpproach of most oppoftof the
In the beginning of this year, news of the signing of the Treaty of Ryswick arrived at St. Domingo, most opportunely for the French, as it prevented the approach of an army of 550 Spaniards, who had already penetrated to the plain of the cape, and had commenced their ravages, which the French, from their recent losses, were in no state to oppose.
All the gold and silver plate from the churches at Carthagena which could be collected was, by order of the French King, sent back. The governor of the French in St. Domingo had directions to use his utmost endeavours to suppress the pirates; and a new company was formed, under the name of the Company of St. Louis, or of the Isle Avache, for clearing and peopling that part of St. Domingo. This company was to have the exclusive commerce with this part of the island for thirty years.
The first settlement on the banks of the Essequebo, was founded by the Dutch this year, nearly 100 miles from the mouth of the river. The land was granted gratis, under express - stipulations that a given portion should be under cultivation in a
given time, with the promise of a larger grant when the terms of the first were complied with. A fine was to be levied for non-compliance, if not paid, the land and improvements were to be sold. The governor was appointed, and the code of laws given by the Dutch West India Company, subject to the approbation of the States-General.
Governor Beeston reported the inhabitants of Jamaica to be 7365 Whites, and 40,000 Blacks.
The official return of the population in Barbadoes, states the number of white men at 2330, and 42,000 slaves. In 1676, there were 10,000 white men upon the island, capable of bearing arms. An act, passed in 1697, for the encouraging the importation of white servants, recites, that they had been ill used. This extraordinary diminution in twenty-two years is a shocking proof of it.
The first minute account of the inhabitants of the Bermudas was in the lists of 1698: they state it at 3615 whites, and 2247 slaves.
Six sail arrived in the West Indies with a colony of Scotch, who were landed upon the 4th of November, within a league of the Isla del Oro, on the coast of Darien ; and, in pursuance of a treaty, they were joined by the chief men and leaders of the natives: they called the settlement “ New Edinburgh, in
Portation of act, passede men upon the 42,000 Slavoes, states
Bolinbroke's Voyage to Demerary, p. 134.
Tindal's Continuation of Rapin, p. 392.