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Sir Nicholas Laws succeeded Peter Heywood, Esquire, as governor of Jamaica.

The House of Lords addressed the King relative to the Bahama Islands: they stated, that no means had been taken to secure those islands as they had advised that the pirates had a lodgment and a battery upon Harbour Island, and that the usual retreat and general receptacle for pirates was at Providence. Hereupon his Majesty gave directions for dislodging the pirates, making settlements and a fortification for its security and defence. A proclamation was also issued, which Colonel Bennet, the governor of Bermudas, sent to the pirates, who gladly accepted of the mercy offered, and promised to surrender themselves as soon as they could get a passage to the English colonies; adding, that they did not doubt but their fellows who were at sea would gladly follow their example. Captain Henry Jennings and fifteen others followed the sloop to Bermudas, and surrendered themselves. Captains Lassie, Nichols, Hernigold, and Burges, and 114 men, surrendered themselves also.

Captain Woods Rogers arrived at New Providence in July, to reduce the pirates, with his Majesty's ships Rose, Milford, and another. Vane, one of the captains of the pirates, sent a fire-ship against the Rose, and obliged her to cut her cables to escape the danger. Upon the appearance of the other two vessels, Vanè, with fifty men, made off in a sloop. The Milford and the other man-of-war got aground, and Vane escaped. On the 27th of July, Captain Rogers landed, took possession of the fort, and read his Majesty's commission in the presence of about 300 persons. Above 100 soldiers were landed with Captain Rogers, which, with the inhabitants, who were all accustomed to fire-arms, was considered force sufficient to defend the island. Rogers appointed six persons who came with him to be of the council, also six of the inhabitants who had never been pirates; and thus the appearance of government was restored. Two hundred pirates surrendered, received certificates of their surrender, and took the oaths of allegiance, as did, voluntarily, the greatest part of the inhabitants.

At St. Lucia, 6 the general and intendant issued an ordinance, that slaves convicted of poisoning the rivers were to be exposed to the pillory during three market days, and one month's imprisonment, for the first offence; and for a repetition, to be flogged and marked.”

The Duke of Orleans, Regent of France, upon a supposition that there was a rich mine in the island of St. Lucia, made

Gentleman's Magazine, April, 1737, p. 217. Du Pratz, vol. 1. p.24. Atkins's Voyage to the West Indies, p. 249. Harris's Voyages, vol. ii. pp. 285, 286. Campbell's Political Survey, vol. ii. p. 680.

a grant of that island in property to the Marshal d’Estrées, who immediately sent over an expedition to fortify and colonize the island. On their arrival they found it inhabited by soldiers and sailors, deserters from the army and navy of both nations, who all joined the new settlers; but the British court expostulating upon this, and shewing clearly that the right was in the crown of Great Britain, the grant was recalled.

1719.

The Marquis de Sorel succeeded the Marquis de Chateau Morand, as governor-general of the French Leeward Islands.

The Danes sent some colonists from St. Thomas to the island of St. John's..

By the 6th of Geo. I. chap. 5. it is declared, that the King's Majesty, with the consent of the Lords and Commons of Great Britain in Parliament, hath power to make laws to bind the people of Ireland, “ and other British conquests and dependencies, in all cases."

A French force from Martinico, under the command of Major Paulian, landed at St. Vincent, to assist the Red Caribs, in driving out the Negroes. He landed without much opposition, and began to burn the Negro huts and destroy their plantations, expecting the Indians would attack them from the mountains: they, however, did not assist their allies; and the Negroes, by retreating to the woods in the day-time, and sallying. in the night, destroyed so many of the French, among the rest their commander, that the survivors were obliged to retreat: they afterwards, by persuasion and presents, made peace with both Indians and Negroes. · The Spaniards at Puerto Rico sent an expedition to Crab Island, and carried off all the English, who had attempted to settle a colony upon that island, under the command of Mr. Howell, about eighteen months before.

Charles Vanè, the pirate, who escaped from Commodore Rogers at New Providence, after committing numerous depredations, and getting turned out of his vessel for cowardice by John Rackam, was shipwrecked upon an island in the bay of Honduras, where he was seized by Captain Holford, an old acquaintance, carried to Jamaica, and there executed.

Parliamentary “ Further Papers,” 1826, p. 42. Charlevoix, tom. iv, p. 219.

Coke's West Indies, vol. iii. p. 160.
Jordan's Examination of the Slave Registry Bill, pp. 55, 56.
Edwards, vol. 1. p. 413. Gentleman's Magazine, April, 1737, p. 217. .

Histoire des Pirates, tom. iv. p. 154. .

.. The governor of Jamaica sent to Cuba to demand the restitution of several Negroes piratically taken from the island; and received the following answer: “ That as to those and other fugitives, they were there as the other subjects of their lord the King; and being brought voluntarily to their holy church, had received the water of baptism."

1720.

The four Dutch houses who were the proprietors of Berbice resolved to extend their association, by forming a capital of 3,200,000 florins, divided into transferrable shares, the property of which communicated the colonial rights formerly enjoyed by the four associates. These shares were never bought

up, oyed by the four ommunicated the sterrable shares, capital of

Negroes..

- Among the numerous speculations which swarmed at this time, were “ a subscription for effectually settling the island of Blanco and Saltortugas," and one for a settlement on the isleof St. Croix. Governor Hamilton reported the population of

Whites.
Antigua at - 3672 19,186
Montserrat,

1688

3772 Nevis :

2358

5689 St. Kitts - - 2740

7321 Virgin Islands - 1122

1509 The governor of St. Lucia' ordered - all Mulattoes and Indians, of either sex, slaves, who work at the cultivation of the ground, to dress in conformity with the ordinance of 1685, and wear linen 6 de vitre or morlaix,” for shirts and trowsers, or petticoats of Indienne or ginga, and not to wear any other dress, on pain of imprisonment, and confiscation of their clothes; and that all Mulattoes, Indians, or Negroes, of either sex, also slaves, who serve their masters or mistresses as domestics, to wear linen de vitre or morlaix, or old clothes, equivalents, belonging only to the masters or mistresses, with necklace and ear-rings of silver, &c. according to the quality of the master or mistress, &c. under the same penalty.

The French King issued an ordinance, dated 7th July,

grour linens of India

Long's Jamaica, vol. ji. p. 85. Brougham's Colonial Policy, book i. sect. 3. p. 347. Report of the Lords of the Committee, 1789, Supplement to No. 15.

1720, intituled, “ Ordonnance de MM. le General et Intendant, sur la remonstrance du Procureur-general, qui prescrit la verification des titres de tous les gens de couleur qui se pretendent libres.”

Upon the 26th of January, Mr. Law, the governor of Jamaica, wrote to the alcalde of La Trinidad, in Cuba, to complain of the piracies committed by a troop of banditti, who pretended to have commissions from him, and resided in his government, and particularly to demand Nicholas Brown and Christopher Winter, two traitors, to whom he had given protection.

Mr. Law also assured him, that if any of the pirates were taken upon the shores of Jamaica, he would hang them all : he demanded ample restitution for all the Negroes which Brown and Winter had taken from the north side of Jamaica, and for the other effects which they had carried off since the peace.

Lieutenant Laws, of his Majesty's ship Happy, was sent by Admiral Vernon with this letter.

Upon the 8th of February he received an answer from Benette Alfonse del Monzana, stating that the Negroes and vessels which had been seized were smugglers; that the English fugitives, having turned Roman Catholics, were become Spanish subjects; but if they behaved themselves improperly, they should be punished. He therefore requested Mr. Law to quit the harbour and coast immediately, as he was resolved not to permit him to have any further intercourse with the shore,

Mr. Law, in his reply, the 20th February, said he was determined not to quit that coast before he had retaliated ; and if he met with any vessels belonging to Trinidad, he would treat them as pirates, since the governor had made a pretence of his religion for protecting such scoundrels.

Upon this, Monzano threatened to treat all the English who should fall into his hands as pirates, if Mr. Law did so to the Spaniards. He had plenty of men, he said, and if Mr. Law commanded at sea, he commanded on shore, and should do his duty as a soldier. But if Mr. Law wished for any thing from the shore, he willingly consented to his having it: and so the negotiation ended.

The number of Whites in Jamaica were computed at 60,000 ; but Mr. Long says these accounts were certainly exaggerated.

November the 19th, John Rackam, George Featherstone, Richard Corner, and six others, were condemned to death at Jamaica for piracy. Two others were condemned also ; who when asked if they had any thing to say before sentence was

them as pita any vesselscoast before ebruary, said 1

heeshore, he willin But if Minded on shored, and if Moto the

Novembernet, and is not bothers were

Histoire des Pirates, tom. iv. pp. 49. 162.

Long's Jamaica, vol. i. p. 385.

passed upon them, declared themselves women and with child. They were accordingly sent to be examined. Their names were Mary Read and Anne Bonny. The former died in prison - the latter was repeatedly reprieved, and finally escaped. They were extraordinary women : and when Rackam was taken, stood upon deck longer than any of his men. Before he was executed, Anne Bonny was allowed to see him, but the only consolation she gave him was telling him, “ I am sorry to see you in this situation, but if you had fought like a man, you would not have been hung like a dog. The secret of their sex was unknown to each other for some time, until Anne Bonny falling in love with Mary Read, occasioned a mutual disclosure. Rackam, who intrigued with Anne Bonny, became jealous of her supposed lover, and threatened to kill him: to prevent which, Anne was obliged to let Rackam into the secret, which was still a secret to all the rest of the crew, until Mary fell in love with one of their prisoners. She fought a duel to prevent him from risking his life, and killed her man - engaged the young man's affections as a friend, and then informed him of her sex. A solemn promise of marriage passed between them, and by him she was with child when she was condemned. Upon her trial she denied ever having had connexion with any other man 'than her former husband and this man, nor could any of her acquaintance say that she had.

October the 12th, 1720, an order in council was issued, declaring, “ That the proper jurisdiction of the court held before the governor and council of Barbadoes, in matters cognizable in any of the courts of common law in the said island, is only to correct the errors and grievances arising in the proceedings of the said courts, and not to proceed originally in any causes, except upon petitions in matters of equity,— and ordering their excellencies to govern themselves accordingly.”

This order was issued in consequence of “ divers complaints against Robert Lowther, Esq. governor of Barbadoes.”

1721.

Henry Worsley, Esq. was by letters patent, dated January 11th, 1721, appointed governor of Barbadoes. · The 20th of January, 1721, his Majesty in council issued an order removing eight justices from the commission of the peace in Barbadoes, for having given two sentences " which were arbitrary and cruel.”

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