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emily, embarked Frenchman from that he island.
to acknowledge Du Rausset as their governor, or quit the island. Determined not to acknowledge a Frenchman for his master, Ward, with his family, embarked for New England in a vessel belonging to a man named La Ronde. Soon after this Du Rausset arrived, and having taken possession of the island, hoisted the French flag; but, in consequence of ill health, was obliged to repair to the Cul de Sac in St. Domingo for change of air, and left his nephew, le Sieur de le Place, governor during his absence. A relative of Ward the English governor made an unsuccessful attempt to regain the island from the French; but failing, he was made prisoner by Le Place, and banished, with all his adherents, to Jamaica.
The French repaired the old fortress of Le Vasseur, and put the island in a state of defence, expecting the English would attack them again; but, instead of sending troops, the governor of Jamaica contented himself with sending Colonel Barry with directions not to use force, but to declare to the inhabitants it was only their voluntary submission he would receive. As might have been expected, Barry's proposal was heard with contempt, and he returned to Jamaica, mortified with his reception.
Du Rausset's ill health obliged him to quit the country and return to France. He had contrived to get an order from both the English and French governments to command in Tortuga. Of the English order he availed himself, to prevent any opposition from the governor of Jamaica ; and when he landed at Tortuga he used his French commission. Du Rausset had been with La Vasseur when he took possession of Tortuga.
It was enacted by the English commonwealth, 66 that no goods shall be imported into or exported from the plantations but in British-built ships, and wholly owned by British subjects, and navigated by three-fourths sailors of the same.”
By the 12 Car. II. c. 18., “ all that are appointed governors of the plantations shall, before their entrance into their government, take an oath to do their utmost to put the laws in force in the said plantations; and upon complaint to the King, or such as he shall appoint, that such governors have been wittingly negligent therein, the governors so offending shall be removed ;" and “ governors of the plantations are not to suffer any foreignbuilt ship or vessel to load or unload goods, till a certificate is produced that the owner or owners are not aliens, and examination is made ; and no sugars, tobacco, ginger, indigo, &c. of the growth of any English plantation in America, shall be transported to any place but to some English plantation, or to England, Ireland, &c. on pain of forfeiture and the ship; one moiety to the King, and the other to him that will seize and sue for the same.”
Jacob's Law Dict.
1 Labat denies the whole of this state- as Labat states. It was not at all unlikely ment of Du Tertre, and says, “ Du Ros- that the Spaniards should have abandoned sey (instead of Du Rausset,) conquered Tortuga after they had driven the French the island by surprise from the Spaniards; out: they did so at St. Christopher's, and having landed, in canoes unobserved by the reason was, all their forces were wantthem, 600 well-armed buccaneers, parted for their more important conquest on of whom succeeded in climbing the preci- the continent; besides, they expected terpices, and getting possession of the high ror would prevent others from risking fort before daylight." - Labat, tom. vii. settling there again. Charlevoix, howp. 84.
ever, decisively proves that it was Du I suppose both are in part true, and Rausset, and not the man Labat supposes. that it was the English who were in pos who must have been then upwards of session of the island, and were surprised ninety. by the French, instead of the Spaniards,
And 6 for every vessel which sets out from England or Ireland for any of the said plantations, bond shall be given, with one surety, to the chief officers of the custom-house of the place whence she sails, of £1000 if the ship be under one hundred tons, and of £2000 penalty if of greater burden; that if the said vessel load any of the said commodities at such plantations, it shall bring them to some port of England, Ireland, &c. And for all ships coming from any other port to those plantations, the governors, before the ship be permitted to load, shall take such bond that it shall carry the merchandize to some other English plantation, or to England or Ireland; and every ship taking on board any of the aforesaid goods before such bond given, or certificate thereof, &c. shall be forfeited; and the said governors shall, twice in every year, return true copies of such bonds to the chief officers of the customs in London,” &c.
Upon the 7th of May, 1659, a truce for two months between France and Spain was signed at Paris; and upon the 21st of June following, the truce was prolonged for an unlimited time, and until another order from one of the kings should revoke it, after which revocation eight days were to elapse before hostilities could be recommenced.
Upon the 7th of November, 1659, a treaty of peace, called, of the Pyrenees, between France and Spain, was concluded in “ l'Isle de Faisans, située dans la rivière de Bidassoa, dans la maison batie en ladite isle pour la présent traitté.”
In this treaty there is not any thing which relates to the West Indies in particular.
- The charge to the commonwealth of England for the forces maintained in Jamaica, according to an account rendered before the House of Commons, 26th March, 1659, amounted to £110,228 lls. 3d. The annual issues afterwards till the Restoration about £54,000.”
Shall be forfe before sincery ship
Indie The Chan Jamo
Colonel D'Oyley being informed by the Negroes, that the Spaniards, under their old governor, Don Christopher, were concealed on the north side of Jamaica, sent Colonel Tyson, with eighty men, and twenty Spanish Blacks, across the mountains to attack him. Tyson found the Spaniards posted in a swamp with 133 men; at the first onset their lieutenant-general received a mortal wound by a lance. Don Christopher escaped ; about sixty were slain; several made prisoners; and the Blacks shewed great dexterity in catching the fugitives.
The English gained the victory without any loss, and proceeded to Chereiras Bay, where Colonel Tyson, by placing his men in ambuscade, took all the Spanish scouts one after the other, and seized their vessel, on board of which he found twenty soldiers.
Port Royal became abundantly stocked by privateers, who, from very small beginnings, mustered at last 3000 fighting men, and thirty sail of stout vessels, well furnished with every necessary.
Captain Gregory Butler, one of the commissioners sent with Penn and Venables, after pleading his losses in the service, requests “ a commission for the government of Tortuga, on the north-west part of Española, with authority to depute and grant commissions to men of war against the enemies of the State.”
The Spanish Negroes who had sought refuge in the woods in Jamaica, intimidated the whites from venturing far from the coast. Captain Ballard was sent with a detachment against a party called the Vesmaholis Negroes, and took several of them prisoners.
In the first private audience which the Spanish ambassador, the Baron de Batteville, had with Charles the Second, he delivered a memorial to his Majesty, in which he required, “ the delivery of the island of Jamaica to his master, it having been taken by his rebel subjects, contrary to the treaty of peace between the two crowns.”
Permanent peace was by no means established in Guadaloupe by the arbitration. The governor's servants forbade those of the other parties from using the roads which had been declared common, disarming those they met upon them; and M. Hinsselin, the governor's brother-in-law, challenged the Chevalier Houel to single combat, and fought him. M. de Poincy, as the King's lieutenant-general in the islands, interfered and forbade any further proceedings between the parties. The inhabitants took part with their different lords, and perpetual disturbances occurred.
Long's Jamaica, vol i. pp. 279. 282. 310. - vol. ii. p. 339. Lite of Clarendon,
vol. ii. p. 159. Du Tertre, tom. i. p 569.
The governor went to France, and was followed by his brother the chevalier, to answer any charges that might be brought against him. The affair of the arbitration was again discussed, by the Duke de Bournonville, governor of Paris, three counsellors of state, and the master of the requests; and their award, which was issued the 18th of October, satisfied both
M. Houel returned to Guadaloupe, and appeared to be upon very good terms with his nephews; but in less than two months after his arrival, he published an order, declaring that his nephews intended to assassinate him, and directing that if either of them, or any of their adherents, were seen upon the lands under his jurisdiction with arms, the alarm-bell was to be rung, and they were to be seized and carried to prison; and, that no person might pretend ignorance of the cause, he directed that this order should be published, and affixed to all the public places in the island. The evils which followed were innumerable. Many lives were lost on both sides.
Upon the 31st of March, the treaty for a general peace between the Caribs, English, and French, was signed at Guadaloupe, by M. Houel and the Fathers Beaumont and Fontaine, in the name of the English and French, and agreed to by fifteen of the principal Caribs. The treaty consisted of four articles.
By the first, all the acts of hostility were to cease, and all prisoners to be restored.
By the second, the Caribs promised to do all in their power to preserve peace, and to punish any of their countrymen who should break it, provided they were allowed the undisturbed possession of the islands of St. Vincent's and Dominica, which were their only places of retreat. Governor Houel promised, with the King's leave, to do all in his power to prevent their being disturbed.
By the third, the Caribs declared themselves content to allow Father Beaumont to reside among them, and that he should return to that island within eight days. Father Beaumont told the assembly, that while he sojourned upon that island he had seen some of the principal savages, all of whom had requested that the Christians would not inhabit those islands, and that the French might be their protectors against any who attempted to obtain possession of them.'
Du Tertre, tom. i. pp. 571. 577, 578.
| The insertion of this observation of Father Beaumont's in the body of the treaty is remarkable.
By the fourth article, Baba demanded and obtained, in consideration of the trouble he had given himself, that his two nephews should be given up to him by Baillarde of Martinico, who had taken them. An apparently unnecessary article, as it seems provided for in the first.
Father Fontaine, prefect and vicar-general of the brothers Prescheurs, was drowned soon afterwards, in a canoe going from Capsterre to Basse Terre, Guadaloupe.
D’Aigremont, the governor of St. Lucia, as he was hunting, was stabbed in the breast by some Caribs, and killed : he was succeeded by Le Lande, who died in six months, and was succeeded by Bonnard, Madame du Parquet's brother.
The population of Santa Cruz this year was about six hundred persons, besides slaves.
At this time there was no garrison in any of the French islands, but all the inhabitants were obliged to mount guard in their turns: they did it for eight days successively in Guadaloupe, but in the other islands, only for twenty-four hours: there was
only one officer to each brigade, and one serjeant; so that one - company was fifteen days or three weeks at rest. The eight days'
guard was very inconvenient to the inhabitants of Guadaloupe, particularly to those who had no servant to send; for their lands suffered considerably by such a long absence. The masters of houses might send one of their men, but not one of their slaves. It was customary to have a general exercise once every month.
No person was permitted to marry in any of these islands, without permission from the governor! This occasioned great disorders, especially as the Council of Trent anathematized those lords who deprived their subjects of the liberty of marrying.
Upon New-year's day, all the companies under arms were in the habit of saluting the governor.
No person could leave any of these islands without a written permission from the governor, sealed with his arms; and if the captain of any vessel carried any person away without leave, he was fined severely, and forfeited every thing he left upon the island.
Upon the 11th of April, M. de Poincy died at St. Christopher's, aged seventy-seven. He was Bailiff and Grand Cross of the Order of Malta, “ Commandeur Doisemont et de Couleurs," and Chef d'Escadre of his Majesty's vessels in Bretagne. He had commanded in the West Indies twenty-one years; six years as lieutenant-general of all the islands; two years during his dispute with M. de Thoisy Patrocle, as lieutenant-general of
Du Tertre, tom. i. pp. 579. 581. -- tom. ii. pp. 39. 442, 443.
Lahat, tom. vi. p. 254.