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sugars with whistom-houseged, and theturned to merant
manufacture, or the produce of our colonies, have, during this war, been sent to the French islands from North America, which must bring back into this kingdom the enormous profit of £3,200,000.” He adds, “ We may with truth affirm, that Española, thus circumstanced, is equally valuable to the British nation, in the hands of the French, with any of our own islands, and much more so than Guadaloupe. The trade,” he continues, “ has been carried on with at least the implied consent and approbation of the government; for it cannot be supposed that his Majesty's governors in North America, who granted flags of truce to private merchants, to carry French prisoners to Española and bring back others in return, at their own expence, were ignorant, that in so doing they had a view to their own private advantage; nor could they be ignorant how that advantage arose, when the flags returned to the ports from whence they first proceeded, and then made regular entries at the several custom-houses of the respective cargoes of foreign sugars with which they were loaded.”
This is a curious proof of traffic with the West Indies without the expence of an establishment.
Mr. Nathaniel Gilbert, a methodist, and Speaker of the House of Assembly in Antigua, collected a few persons in his own house for exhortation and prayer, and afterwards publicly preached the gospel to the slaves. “ Amidst torrents of reproach he persevered till he had formed a society of nearly 200.” This was the first methodist society formed in the West Indies. Mr. Gilbert continued to labour among the Negroes until his death. After his death, two black women continued praying and meeting with those who attended every night, until the arrival of Mr. Baxter in 1778.
The malversation of the officers of " the Company of Cuba" ruined the Company, and forced them to give up all further operations.
In Jamaica, from the year 1739 to 1760, no less than 55,937 acres of land were forfeited by default of the proprietors, in not opening five acres per annum, as the law directs, and for nonpayment of quit-rents; and about 50,000 acres were in that time patented.
Three hundred and nine barrels of gunpowder, each of 100 lbs. weight, were received at Fort Charles — " which makes the tonnage of that year, of the ships that came to Kingston harbour, 30,900 tons."
Dr. Coke's History of the West Indies, vol.i. p. 213. ; vol. ii. pp. 427, 428.
Brougham's Colonial Policy, book i. sect. 3. p. 435.
Long's Jamaica, vol. i. p. 406.; vol. ii. p. 149.
By an act passed this year, the ports of Kingston, Savannahla-Mar, Montego Bay, and St. Lucia, in Jamaica, are declared, under certain restrictions, free ports, for any foreign vessel from any foreign colony or plantation in America, not having more than one deck. This act was to continue in force until 1773, and to the end of the then next session of parliament.
Between the 26th of July and the 10th of November, near 200 persons died at Basse Terre, St. Christopher's, of the fever.
The exports from Essequibo and Demerary employed seven sail, and consisted of 878 hhds. of sugar, forty-five tierces of coffee, and twenty-eight bales of cotton.
In the beginning of December, a barber, at Basse Terre, Guadaloupe, named Boidin, quarrelled with an English sailor about a Mulatto girl. Not satisfied with fighting with their fists, they agreed to meet the same night on the bridge of Basse Terre city. Boidin came first, and shortly after the sailor with his captain, each armed with a sword, and several other Englishmen armed with clubs, who all fell upon Boidin; he wounded two of them, but at last was dragged to the warehouse belonging to the ship, where they put a rope round his neck, and were upon the point of hanging him — when Mr. Netercot, an Antigua merchant, called the guard, and saved his life. The officers of the guard sent Boidin to Fort Royal, until the governor of the fort, Colonel Melville, examined into the affair. The captain and sailor were also seized, and sent to prison. Upon this, at seven in the evening, 200 Englishmen, armed, repaired to the prison to rescue their countrymen. -The inhabitants were alarmed, and detachments of soldiers were sent to disperse the rioters, and bring the two prisoners to the fort.
Governor Crump insisted that an example should be made of the guilty. The captain and sailor were condemned to pay Boidin 3000 livres, and all his expences, which amounted in all to about 8000 livres. This disturbance occasioned reports of a conspiracy and revolt at Guadaloupe.
Governor Crump died at Guadaloupe, and was succeeded by Colonel Melville.
His Majesty's sloop Virgin, Captain St. Loe, on her passage from Barbadoes to Guadaloupe, was taken by three French privateers, after a severe action, in which Captain St. Loe was killed, and several of the crew.
His Majesty's ship Hampshire, of fifty guns, Captain Usher,
Campbell's Political Survey, vol. ii. p. 665.
Bolinbroke's Voyage to Demerary, Appendix.
was lost on the Colorados, off the west end of Cuba. The crew were saved, and carried to the Havana.
His Majesty's ship Griffin, of twenty-eight guns, was wrecked, October 25th, on the island of Barbuda, and fifty of her crew drowned.
His Majesty's ship Mermaid, of twenty-four guns, was wrecked upon the Bahamas — crew saved.
The boats of his Majesty's ships Trent and Boreas, commanded by the first lieutenants of their respective ships, Messrs. Miller and Stuart, in Cumberland harbour (in Cuba), attacked the Vainqueur, of ten guns, sixteen swivels, and ninety men, and the Mackau, of six swivels and fifteen men. One barge was sunk, and eleven men killed and wounded, before the vessels surrendered. The captors then proceeded further up the Lagoon, to attack the Guespe, of eight guns and eighty-five men. The French set her on fire before the boats got up.
The Saint David privateer, from Martinico, captured the Prince of Bevern, Nichols, belonging to Liverpool, after a severe action. Captain Nichols had only eighteen white men on board; and the Frenchmen, in revenge for their captain and forty of the crew being killed, on boarding the Prince of Bevern, after they had struck their colours, “ killed the mate, carpenter, doctor, and several others in cold blood, cutting their arms, hands, and legs off with cutlasses, and firing their pistols through their bodies !" The captain received two deep cuts in his head, but was not killed. Only four of the English escaped, being dangerously wounded, though none of them were hurt in the action.
On the 7th of January, his Majesty's ship Trent captured Le Bien Aimé, of twenty guns, after an hour's action, during which the French had twenty men killed and wounded, and the English six : she was from Martinico, bound to France.
His Majesty's ships Centaur and Hampshire captured, near Donna Maria Bay, St. Domingo, the St. Anne: she was pierced for sixty-four guns, but had only fifty-eight mounted, and a crew of 389 men. She had a valuable cargo on board.
On the 21st of December, Rear-Admiral Holmes died : he was succeeded in the command of the fleet at Jamaica by Captain Arthur Forrest, until the arrival of Sir J. Douglas.
Beatson's Memoirs, vol. ii. pp. 426. 452. Annual Register, 1761, p. 97, Rear-Admiral Holmes's Letter. - pp, 141, 154.
At Nevis, a conspiracy was discovered amongst the Negroes, for massacring all the Whites. The island was very sickly, 66 occasioned by the want of hurricanes and high winds."
Barbadoes, to 1761, returned a yearly average of sugar, . 25,000 hhds.
The number of Negroes in Jamaica was estimated at 146,000. The Assembly doubled the deficiency-tax, and taxed the absentees heavily.
Upon the 31st of March, at four P.M. the sea at Barbadoes began to flow; at eight it appeared to ebb; but at ten, it increased considerably, and continued so till six the next morning. A similar agitation in the water was observed there at the time the earthquake happened at Lisbon, in 1755.
At Surinam, the insurgent Negroes waged a regular war against the white colonists.
The Dutch settlers at Surinam concluded a treaty of peace with the Maroon Negroes, founded so exactly on the basis of equality between the two parties, that the Dutch plenipotentiaries were obliged to ratify the treaty according to the African forms.
The Negro chief was named Araby, and his influence extended over the whole of the wild Negroes. The treaty was signed at Ouca, and was generally respected. Many forsaken estates were, in consequence of it, again inhabited, and the Dutch West India Company paid about £5,000,000 sterling to renew their charter.
The exports from Essequibo and Demerary employed six ships, and consisted of 1177 hhds, of sugar, 274 bags of coffee, and 50 bales of cotton.'
Annual Register, 1761, pp. 95. 160. Brougham's Colonial Policy, book i. sect. 3. p. 510.; book ii. sect. 3. p. 180. Sir W. Young's Common-place Book, p. 18. Long's Jamaica, vol. i. p. 377.
Bolinbroke's Voyage to Demerary, p. 345. — Appendix.
i Abstract of a letter in the Dutch paralytic, by striking his knees three times Philosophical Transactions, on the animal with one of these fishes fresh taken. The electricity of the conger-eel, written the shock was such as to throw him down, 7th of June, 1761, from Rio Essequibo, with the two persons who held him ; but in South America, by Mr. Lott, surgeon he soon got up, and instead of being car. of that colony:
ried from the place of operation, walked “ The fish here called the drill wisch, away, as if nothing had ever ailed him.. or conger-eel, is a kind of eel, in length With this admirable eel I have likewise from one to five feet, and of this singular cured nervous disorders, fevers, and very quality, that it produces all the known severe head-achs, to which the slaves here effects of electricity - the like shock, the "are peculiarly subject. Some of these like real or supposed cures. I at first wonders were performed before the govercured fowls, grown paralytic by contrac- nor, and several other persons of considertions of the nerves; and then, proceeding ation." - Annual Register, 1764, p. 91. from animals to men, by electrifying a
On the 6th of June, Sir James Douglas, with four sail of the line and some frigates, with a body of troops from Guadaloupe, under the command of Lord Rollo, appeared off Roseau, in Dominica, and sent a manifesto on shore, which was answered by two deputies coming off to treat for the surrender of the island. But M. Longprie, the governor, persuaded the inhabitants to man the intrenchments, and defend the place.
Sir James Douglas, therefore, anchored close in shore, and the troops were landed under the fire of the squadron. The grenadiers of the 4th and 22d regiments soon stormed the intrenchments, Lord Rollo and Colonel Melville leading them on. The enemy were driven from every post, and M. Longprie and other officers taken at their head quarters. Next day the inhabitants surrendered, and took the oaths of allegiance to His Britannic Majesty...
As the island was taken by assault, Lord Rollo gave the inhabitants no other terms than a protection, till his Majesty's pleasure should be known,
The native Caribs professed to like the English, and were to deliver up their arms in a body.
The legislature of Antigua passed an act, to direct that every person manumitting a slave should give security in a bond that the person so enfranchised should not become chargeable to the parish.
At Jamaica an act was passed, to prevent grants and devises from white persons to Negroes. Real estates, though bequeathed to Negroes, to go to the heir at law. Personal estates, though bequeathed, to go under the statute of distribution.
By art. 6. trustees not allowed to demur to bills in equity, 67. Negroes and Mulattoes not born in weillock, incapacitated to purchase more than £ 2000 in reality. 68. Persons resident in Great Britain excepted for a time.
« 9. Persons may devise €2000, and no more, to any person as before.
6 12. Persons of the fourth degree may claim.”
“ The Assembly at Jamaica found, by inquiry, that property to the amount of between £200,000 and £300,000, including four sugar estates, seven penns, thirteen houses, &c. had been devised to Mulatto children. “ And, duly weighing the ill
Smollett, vol. xv. p. 249, 250, Beatson's Memoirs, vol. ii. p. 451. Annual Register, 1761, p. 139, Lord Rollo and Sir James Douglas's Letters
Lord Rollo's Dispatch, p. 139.
Report of the Lords of the Committee, 1789.
1826, p. 99.