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Strablishing him a coopt his Emiste Martin, anche seignoriala by the aupher's, Santa Cruth, he change

death, St. Christo morning, and his chatt henever :

St. Christopher's; near three years by an order of council reestablishing him a governor for one year; and the rest of the time by the authority of his Eminence of Malta. He governed St. Christopher's, Santa Cruz, St. Martin, and St. Bartholomew's. A short time before his death, he changed the seignorial droits from 100 pounds of tobacco to 110 pounds of sugar, and occasioned general murmurings; but the inhabitants expecting his death, did not at that time oppose it. He was buried at Basse Terre, St. Christopher's.

Every Sunday morning, all the officers at Basse Terre used to pay their respects to him at his château, where he had a table with forty covers for breakfast; and whenever any of the inhabitants went to call upon him, he generally detained them to dine: his table was always open to respectable persons, and particularly to officers.

Once every week, when his health permitted, he administered justice from under the great fig-tree at Basse Terre. M. du Parquet did the same at Martinico, under his calabash-tree at Fort St. Pierre: and the parties were never dismissed until they had come to an agreement, and embraced each other!

The Chevalier de Sales succeeded him, and assumed the title of Administrator of the Lordship of St. Christopher's, and Chief of the French established by his Majesty for his Eminence of Malta.

Soon afterwards the inhabitants waited upon him, to request that he would abolish the new droits, and re-establish the old ones, of which he promised to consider as soon as he had time. But Du Bisson afterwards, with about forty others, were openly opposing the new droits, when De Sales proceeded to his house, attended by his principal officers, and was received at the door with so little respect, that he ordered Du Bisson to be arrested, Bisson immediately retired into his house for a pistol, and shot at M. de Sales, who was on horseback : his horse reared up, and the ball which was intended for the body passed through and through his thigh. Bisson was immediately shot through the body by Guarigue, and carried to prison. He was condemned

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Du Tertre, tom. ii. pp. 441. 446. - tom. i. p. 582.

T“ On les y attachoit (les Negres) autrefois par l'oreille avec un clou, et apres y avoir demeure quelque espace de temps, l'on la leur coupoit. Il me souvient à ce sujet qu'un pauvre Negre de St. Christophe, ayant desia perdu l'une de ses oreilles, par ce supplice comme il fut condamne à perdre l'autre, il ne voulut jamais permettre qu'on la luy coupast, qu'il n'eut parle à M. le General de Poincy, ce qui luy ayant este accorde, il

se jetta à ses pieds, le pria d'avoir pitié de luy, et de ne pas permettre qu'on luy coupast l'oreille, parce qu'il ne sçauroit plus ou mettre son bout de petun si on la luy ostoit (car c'est une coutume aux Negres d'avoir tousiours un bout de petun sur chaque oreille, pour fumer en travaillant): sa simplicité ayant touché M. de Poincy, il luy fit misericorde,” Du Tertre, tom. ii. p. 531.

to be hung and quartered: his quarters were exposed upon trees, and his head upon a stake in the market-place! Two of his partisans, named Bæuf, were banished, and the rest quietly submitted to the new droits.

De Sales recalled several persons whom his predecessor had banished, and reinstated them in their property.

Upon the restoration of King Charles the Second, Lord Willoughby, who had several years of his private contract with the Earl of Carlisle unexpired, was re-appointed governor of Barbadoes. When he arrived at that island, the inhabitants saw, with astonishment and regret, that they were still viewed as under the dominion of a patent, which they considered void in law! They therefore implored the royal interference and protection; fully convinced, that without this they could produce no title to their plantations. The King instituted an inquiry into the opposite claims of the contending parties, reserving to himself the right of deciding the cause.

1661.

Colonel d'Oyley, who had the chief command in Jamaica, under a commission from the lord protector, was confirmed in that command by a commission from King Charles, dated the 13th of February, 1661: this may be considered as the first establishment of a regular civil government in that island. The instructions consisted of fifteen articles: the third, regulates the manner of electing the council, eleven of which were to be chosen indifferently, by as many of the officers of the army, planters, and inhabitants, as could be conveniently admitted to such election, either at one or more places; which said persons, with the secretary of the island, who was thereby appointed always to be one, were established a council, to advise and assist the governor in the execution of his trust, and five were to be a quorum. The sixth directs the governor to encourage ministers, that Christianity and the Protestant religion, according to the Church of England, might have due reverence and exercise amongst them. The other articles are of minor importance.

- In the year 1661, King Charles the Second created on the same day thirteen baronets in Barbadoes, none of them having less than £1000, and some of them £10,000 a-year. At this time their trade actually maintained 400 sail of ships; and it was computed that the running cash of the island might be about

Du Tertre, tom. i. p. 584. Coke's West Indies, vol. ii. pp. 99, 100.

Edwards, vol. iii. pp. 287, 288. Harris's Voyages, vol. ii. p. 256.

£200,000, and their annual exportation to Great Britain, in sugar, indigo, ginger, and other commodities, at least £350,000.

About this year, a native of Dieppe, commonly called Pierre le Grand, sailed from Tortuga, in a boat with twenty-eight men, upon a piratical cruize: he is said to have been the first that did so from that island, and his success induced others to follow his example. He had been a long time at sea, without meeting with any thing, and was in danger of starving from want of provisions, when a large Spanish ship hove in sight off Cape Tiburon. The whole crew now swore to stand by Pierre le Grand to the last ; and he, before they engaged, ordered the surgeon to bore holes in the sides of the boat, that she sinking under them, they might have no hopes of life but in conquering! This was accordingly done; and at dusk in the evening, they ran alongside the Spaniard, and boarded her, each man armed with a sword and pistol : they made immediately for the cabin, where the captain was playing at cards; and securing him, and killing a few that made resistance, they won the prize. Le Grand kept on board as many of the men as sufficed to navigate her, and sent the rest, on shore. With these he made the best of his way to France.

1662.

they surrendered war, miscondwes annually. to supply thompany

Charles the Second granted, by letters patent, an exclusive right of trade to Africa, to Queen Catharine; Mary, the Queen Dowager; the Duke of York, and several others, as a company of royal adventurers! They undertook to supply the West India planters with 3000 slaves annually. This company was so reduced by war, misconduct, and interloping traders, that they surrendered their charter in 1672, and in consideration of £34,000, gave up their effects to a new company!

Adrian Lampsius, a Flushing merchant, procured letters patent from Louis the Fourteenth, creating him Baron of Tobago, and also a resignation from the Dutch West India Company of their right to the island; and thus becoming proprietor of the island under the crown of France, he sent over M. Hubert de Beveren as governor: under his administration, the colony flourished, and the island was strengthened with new fortifications.

M. de Vanderoque, governor of Martinico, died upon that island, the 24th of October. After his death, the inhabitants petitioned the King of France, that the government might be

Esquemeling's Hist. Buc. chap. vi. Report of the Committee upon the Slave Trade, 1789. Univ. Hist. vol. xxxvi. p. 281, 282. Du Tertre, tom. i. p.548.

preserved for M. d'Enambuc du Parquet; and M. de Clermont, as being nearly related to the children, was appointed governor during M. d'Enambuc's minority.

Lord Windsor superseded Colonel d’Oyley as governor of Jamaica, and on his arrival published a proclamation of King Charles the Second, dated the 14th of December, 1661, declaring, " that thirty acres of improveable land shall be granted to every person, male or female, being twelve years old or upwards, then residing, or who, within two years next ensuing, should reside upon the island; and that the same should be assigned and set out by the governor and council, within six weeks after it was applied for; but in case they did not go thither within six months, the allotment to be void, and free to be assigned to any other planter. Also, “ that all the children of our natural-born subjects of England, to be born in Jamaica, shall, from their respective births, be reputed to be, and shall be, free denizens of England, and shall have the same privileges, to all intents and purposes, as our free-born subjects of England.” He brought out a great seal and mace, and Sir Charles Lyttleton accompanied him as chancellor.

His Lordship's commission directed, that in case of his death, or leaving the island, the government should devolve upon the council, or any seven of them, and appointed £2000 a-year as their salary.

His instructions consisted of twenty-two articles. By the second, he was directed to appoint a council, according to his commission and the instructions. But no directions whatever were given, either in the commission which refers to the instructions, or in the instructions themselves, as to the mode in which the council should be appointed. But it appears that the governor named them himself.

The 9th article directs 100,000 acres of land to be set apart, in each of the four quarters of the island, as a royal demesne.

The 20th empowers the governor, with the advice of the council, to call assemblies to make laws, and upon imminent necessity to levy money: such laws to be in force two years and no longer, unless approved of by the crown.

By Lord Windsor's proclamation, the setting out the 400,000 acres as a royal demesne was suspended.

Soon after Lord Windsor assumed the government of Jamaica, he ordered one thousand picked men from the army to be embarked in twelve vessels belonging to the island, and to sail directly for Cuba. They made that island the 1st of October; but the land-breeze preventing their entering the harbour of

Edwards, vol. i. p.215.-iii pp. 290, 291. Long's Jamaica, vol. i. pp. 194. 217. 283.

St. Jago, the plan of attack was changed, and the army landed two miles to leeward : they marched immediately in the night, their guides carrying torches, and at day-light were six miles from the landing-place, and three from the town. Upon their approach, Don Pedro Moralin, and the late governor of Jamaica, at the head of 800 Spaniards, had barricaded all the avenues, and brought down their artillery. The English received one discharge, then rushed forward, drove all before them, gained the town and six vessels which were at anchor before it. They then attacked the castle and block-houses; and the fleet having entered the harbour, and brought their guns to bear, the Spaniards retreated, first from the ramparts, and then from the inner works. The conquerors immediately demolished the fortifications and the town, which consisted of 2000 houses, and laid waste the country for some miles round. They took 1000 barrels of powder and thirty-four pieces of cannon, some of which were sent to London. The fort had been reputed impregnable: the wall, on the land side, was sixty feet high, and thick in proportion, and had cost £100,000 sterling building. The loss of the Spaniards was estimated at one million sterling

Richard Povey, Esq. secretary of Jamaica, in his letter, dated the 27th October, 1662, speaking of Lord Windsor, says, “ He most nobly withstood any possession of a disease, until he had fairly dismissed the old governor (Colonel d'Oyley), satisfied the late army with his Majesty's royal gift (a donation in money to the four regiments), chose a new militia, found employ for our fleet abroad, and had well settled the present government of this his Majesty's island.”

Lord Windsor remained but a few months in Jamaica, and left the island in November. Sir Charles Lyttleton, chancellor of the island, succeeded to the government, and called the first assembly, which consisted of thirty persons: they enacted a body of laws, with an act for raising money for the public use, wherein the collection, disposal, and accounting were appointed by the assembly.

Sir C. Lyttleton issued a proclamation, offering twenty acres of land per head, and their freedom, to all the Vermaholis Negroes who would come in..

The English first began to cut down log-wood trees on the coast of Yucatan, “ and made a settlement at Campeache, which at first was near Cape Catoche, but afterwards removed to the Laguna de Terminos."

Upon the 14th of September, 1662, a treaty of peace, between Charles the Second, King of England, and the States-General

Long's Jamaica, vol. i. pp. 216. 13.

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