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after landing Lieutenant-General Barre and his garrison, M. Tracy made sail for the West Indies, and arrived at Martinico, June the 2d: he landed in great state, with all his guards and officers, under a salute from all the forts and vessels. After receiving the submissions of the governor and principal inhabitants, he proceeded to church, and after the Te Deum, another salute was fired. He would not take up his abode at the governor's house, but lodged at a merchant's in the town.
He re-appointed M. de Clermont governor of the island, and
Du Tertre, tom. iii. pp. 24. 35. 66, 67.
Alexandre Pronville de Tracy, and M. de la Barre, the island of Cayenne, with its adjoining lands: the whole agreed upon and signed by both parties, March 15, 1664:
“ That the States General, and the licensed Company of the West Indies, shall retain, and have in full force, all their shares, claims, and interests in the island of Cayenne, and places adjoining. - Good (bon). Tracy.
“ That all the effects belonging to the Company, guns, ammunition, and merchandize, as well as provisions, with their appurtenances, shall be carried and conducted, free of all expense, to the place to which they may belong.-- Good. Tracy.
“ That all military persons may march out, the drums beating, with their baggage and arms, for his Excellency shall give them, as well as all the inhabitants, of whatever nation they may be, one or more vessels, to transport their goods and slaves to the islands or country where they may be bound, with the condition that his Excellency shall provide them with provisions and drink necessary for the voyage, according to the custom observed on board the ships. — Good. TRACY.
" But for the vessels and provisions, they must apply to M. de Barre. Tracy.
« Be it enacted, that there shall be given us the free and public exercise of religion; and that the undersigned lords shall protect us in it.- Referred to M. de la Barre. TRACY.
The Jews demand also the free exercise of their religion, as in the preceding article.-Referred to M. de la Barre. TRACY.
« That one month, or more, shall be granted us for holding the ordinary days of audience, for the purpose of liquidat ing all debts, those of the Company, as well as those of individuals ; and the undernamed gentlemen shall assist us,
and protect us in so doing. It is M. de la Barre who must give security for this article. Tracy
“ That all the inhabitants who remain here shall have full possession of their goods, lands, and slaves, and it shall be allowed them either to alienate or sell them. When they wish to go away, it shall be lawful for them to carry their goods, moveables, and slaves where they please, without any impediment; and that the governors shall always assist them in so doing. That the inhabitants shall equally enjoy the same freedom for ten years, and then they shall not in any manner be more harshly treated than the subjects of his Majesty.-M. de la Barre will give the security for this article. TRACY.
" That the vessels here, or that shall arrive after, on the part of the United States, or the licensed Company of the West Indies, and all other traders under their orders, may, without any hindrance, come to an anchor, or sail, as they please, free, without any injury. Good. TRACY.
“ But for the vessels which are here at present, and may come for the future, it is M. de la Barre that must give them security. Tracy.
“ That the expenses incurred by the patron and individuals of the Hebrew colony shall be repaid them. It is M. de la Barre that must decide this article. Tracy,
“ All that is mentioned above, the parties on both sides accept; that is to say, his Excellency de Tracy, for what concerns his most Christian Majesty, and M. de la Barre, for what relates to his government, on one side; and the directors and counsellors, residents at present in the isle of Cayenne, on the other part: promising to hold them inviolable, without any hindrance - being signed below by the said seigneurs, this day, the 15th of May, 1664."-Du Tertre, tom. iii. p. 31.
issued a new set of orders, containing twenty-six regulations, one of which ordered members of the pretended” reformed religion to keep out of the way when they saw the Host coming !
All tobacco was declared confiscated if not weighed by the proper officers before it was exported.
No person was to carry arms, except for his Majesty's service.
French and Spanish money was ordered to pass current, at the same value as in Europe.
M. Houel, the governor of Guadaloupe, sent to make his peace with the general, and among other things contrived to let him know that there were Negroes and cattle waiting his acceptance at Guadaloupe, to the amount of seven or eight thousand livres. M. de Tracy rejected the present with indignation, and sent to tell M. Houel, that there were so many accusations against him, that he had orders from the King to send him to France to answer for himself, and that the best thing he could do was to save appearances, and quit the island as if by his own free will, and not wait for the receipt of the royal letter.
Messrs. Herblay and De Temericour, the other governors of Guadaloupe, sent to M. Tracy, and received for answer, that they also must quit the island, and return to France.
June the 23d, M. Tracy anchored at Guadaloupe, and M. Houel immediately went on board to pay his respects, and afterwards received M. Tracy, when he landed with the same honours as had been paid him at Martinico. M. Tracy refused the offer of his house, and lodged in Basse Terre, for the same reasons that he had done so at Martinico; and had his authority registered, and the same ceremonies performed as in that island.
Upon the fourth day after his landing, to the great surprise of all the inhabitants, M. Houel embarked in a Dutch vessel for France, and the next day the duties were lowered to a capitation-tax of fifty pounds of tobacco or sugar, instead of the ten per cent. on all merchandizes, and some other minor alterations made in favour of the inhabitants.
Eight days after M. Houel's departure, M. d'Herblay and Temericour sailed for France, in the Terron, a king's ship. Before her departure, M. de Tracy published an order in council he had just received from France, forbidding all commerce with the Dutch or Flushingers for six months: the order extended to all the islands held of the religion of Malta, as well as those dependant upon the crown of France; and the reason assigned for issuing the order was, that the plague raged at Amsterdam, and had occasioned great mortality in all that country. This order was carried to the governor of St. Christo
Du Tertre, tom. iii. pp. 76. 78. 91.
English, having ships of War Thomas Woman) and
pher's, by Chaumont, De Tracy's captain of the guard, and read and registered in that island, without any opposition.
M. de Lion was appointed by M. Tracy governor of Guadaloupe, and commander of the royal troops in the island.
M. Houel's brother-in-law, Hincelin, was allowed to remain in the fort at Basse Terre, to look after his relative's affairs.
The English, having purchased St. Lucia from the Caribs, sent 1400 men, in five ships of war, to that island, attended by Mr. Thomas Warner (son of Sir Thomas Warner, the first governor of St. Christopher's, by a Carib woman)' and 600 Caribs, in seventeen piraguas, who were to deliver up the island to the English: they landed in June; and the French garrison, which consisted of fourteen men, commanded by M. Bonnard, surrendered, upon condition of being all sent, with their arms and baggage, to Martinico. Mr. Cook was left governor of the island.
The taking possession of this island from the French occasioned a correspondence between Lord Willoughby, the governor of Barbadoes, and M. Tracy, which ended by the latter referring the affair to his government. The English had before been in possession of the island, but the colonists were attacked by the savages, many of them massacred, and the rest driven off the island : this misfortune, it was alleged, could not give any right to the French to possess the island ; added to which, for more than a year, the English had bought it of the Caribs, who were the true lords of it.
Du Tertre, tom. iii. pp. 81. 86. 93.
Univ. Hist. vol. xxxvi. p. 211.
"This Mr. T. Warner was by Lord de son esprit. Il perdit son père en Willoughby appointed Governor of Do- l'adolescence, et Madame Waernard, qui minica, which island was only inhabited ne l'aimoit pas, et ne l'avoit considère by Caribs.
qu'a cause de son père, commenca à « Le General Waernard, contem- . le persecuter, et à le traiter avec tant porain de M. le General de Poincy, eu d'inhumanité, qu'elle le faisoit travailler un fils d'une esclave sauvage de l'Isle à la terre avec les esclaves de sa maison. de la Dominique ; il le réconnut pour “Waernard, qui, avec les belles qualitez son fils, luy fit porter son nom, et le de son esprit et de son corps, estoit un fit elever dans sa maison avec ses autres homme fier et entreprenant, crevoit de enfans. Mais bien que ce batard fust depit de se voir reduit à une condition si nay d'une femme sauvage et esclave, il ne malheureuse et si abjecte, il se rendit paroissoit rien en luy de sauvage que Marom avec d'autres esclaves fugitifs; la couleur du cuir et du poil, et quoy mais ayant este repris, Madame Waernard qu'il eut les cheveux fort noirs, il les le fit enchainer, et luy fit mettre une épouavoit deliez, annelez et bouclez, contre vantable paire de fers aux pieds, et mesme l'ordinaire des autres sauvages; sa taille l'obligeoit de travailler en cet equipage. estoit mediocre, mais il estoit parfaitement Sa captivité dura jusques à ce que proportionné de tous ses membres : il M. Waernard, fils legitime du General avoit le visage longuet, un grand front, Waernard, et qui commandoit dans l'isle et le nez aquilin, les yeux clairs, longs, de Mont-Sara, vint à S. Christophe, ou et ouverts ; et l'on remarquoit une cer- l'ayant trouvé en cet estat, en eut comtaine gravité sur son visage, qui faisoit passion, le delivra des fers, et pria Maconnoistre la grandeur de son courage et dame Waernard, de luy donner quelque
The English colonists at St. Lucie were attacked by sickness : in less than three months, more than 600 men died.
It was not long before M. Tracy had an opportunity, at Guadaloupe, of shewing his antipathy to the Huguenots. A French priest had embarked at Nantes in a state of intoxication, on board a vessel belonging to Messrs. Cheneau and Peroneau, who brought him to Guadaloupe, and sold him for three years, to pay the expense of his passage out., M. Tracy imprisoned Cheneau, and said that he intended sending him prisoner to France to answer for his crime; but gave his friends to understand, at the same time, if thirty or forty of the principal Huguenots would sign a request for his liberation, it should be granted : they did so, and presented it to M. Tracy, who condemned them to pay fifteen thousand pounds weight of sugar, one thousand of which was to be given the priest, to pay his passage back to France.
The total cessation of all trade with the Dutch, and the want of provisions and necessaries in the islands, which was the immediate consequence, were beginning to be severely felt - when a violent hurricane at Guadaloupe destroyed their potatoes, and added to their distresses. An earthquake at St. Christopher's also did considerable damage.
During M. Tracy's stay at Guadaloupe, he had frequent complaints, from the inhabitants of Grenada, against their governor, the Count de Cerillac, and his son. The detail of them, Du Tertre says, is too odious to repeat. M, de Tracy was affected even to tears by the recital, and he left Guadaloupe the 15th of November, to go to their relief. "Upon his passage he stopped at Martinico, and published an ordinance respecting
Du Tertre, tom. iii. pp. 95, 96. 98, 99. 101, 102, 103.
bien ensemble et se fit admirer des sauvages, sur lesquels il prit un tel ascendant, qu'il les engageoit, avec une facilité merveilleuse, à entreprendre les choses les plus difficiles, et à exercer des cruatez conformes à son natural, qui n'avoit presque rien d'humain, leur donnant en tout rencontre des preuves de sa valeur et de sa conduite."
commandement sur les autres domes tiques.
« Ce pauvre malheureux affranchy n'eut presque de bonheur que la presence de son frère, car aussi tost qu'il fut party, le rage de cette femme redoubla, et elle le poussa avec tant de cruauté, qu'il fut contrainte de suivre le conseil que sa propre mère lui avoit inspiré, qui estoit de se retirer parmy les sauvages de la Dominique.
« Il y fut bien receu à cause de sa mère ; et comme il avoit de l'esprit, il gagna incontinent les cours des sauvages de son quartier, qui estoit la bas terre de la Dominique, qui jusques à son arrivée avoient eu aussi bien que les autres une grosse guerre avec les Anglois. Ce Waernard entreprit de les reconcilier, et y reüssit si heureusement, qu'il les mit
“ Le Milord Willoughby, connoissant ce dont il estoit capable, luy fit faire un voyage en Angleterre, le fit paroistre à la cour, ou il vescut en Chrestien avec les Anglois, et s'habilloit comme eux : mais estant de retour, il quitta ses vestemens, et vescut en infidelle avec les sauvages, et marchoit nud, et roucoüe comme eux ; mais il ne prit qu'une seule femme."-Du Tertre, tom. iii. p. 82.
the Caribs, forbidding their executing justice one upon another in that island, and ordering them to refer all complaints to his Majesty's governor. Before this, their duels with arrows were a source of amusement to the governors !
Upon the 22d of November, M. de Tracy arrived at Grenada, which he found in the greatest distress. Of 500 inhabitants that the Count de Cerillac had found upon the island, only 150 were living! De Tracy was welcomed with great joy, and received the oaths of allegiance from the inhabitants. He obliged their governor, M. de Cerillac, to pay the inhabitants eighty thousand pounds weight of tobacco which he owed them, and distributed the unoccupied lands among the inhabitants of the other islands which he had brought with him, the greater part of whom were sufficiently wealthy to import labourers to cultivate it.
M. Tracy appointed M. Vincent governor of the island, and obliged the Chevalier de Cerillac to quit the fort, and live as a private gentleman upon the island ; and two months afterwards, M. Tracy sent him to France.
An order was published the 28th of November, by M. Tracy, forbidding all persons of the pretended reformed religion to assemble in any place, under any pretence of praying together, or to speak in any manner of the mysteries of the faith, upon pain of being condemned to pay one hundred pounds of tobacco, to be applied to the use of the church, and of being punished according to the rigour of the ordonnances !
On the following day, M. Tracy left Grenada.
M. Vincent, the new governor, immediately gave free permission to the inhabitants to hunt and fish in the Grenadines, as well as in Grenada, which had been forbidden by M. de Cerillac. This considerably improved the comforts of the colonists.
By an act of parliament, passed the 11th of July this year, in France, the apothecaries, surgeons, barbers, goldsmiths, and some others, were exempted from the privileges granted by the edict in 1642, by which any who, for six successive years, had carried on their trades in the West Indies, might keep shops in any of the cities in France, except Paris.
The Duke of Courland, restored to his liberty by the treaty of Oliva, demanded of the States-General his establishment at Tobago, which was refused. The duke then applied to Charles the Second of England, who granted him the island in propriety, upon condition that none should inhabit it except the subjects of the King of England and the Duke of Courland, their heirs and successors. Notification of this grant was sent to the Dutch, but it only served to increase their exertions for defending the island.
Du Tertre, tom.ii. p. 468.-iii. pp. 104, 105, 106.
Univ. Hist. vol. xxxvi. p. 282.