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light vessels were driven on shore, two loaded ships sunk, twentyfour ran on shore, between the Salt Ponds and Mosquito Point.
Annual Register, 1781, p. 92.
numbers came on board of us, both of sea and land kinds : some I took notice of, which happened to be to leeward, turned to windward like a ship — tack and tack — for they could not fly against it; and when they had come over the ship, dash themselves down on the deck, and never attempt to stir till picked up; and when let go again, would not leave the ship, but endeavour to hide them selves from the wind. At eight o'clock a hurricane -- the sea roaring, but the wind still steady to a point: did not ship a spoonful of water. However, got the hatchways all secured, expecting what would be the consequence should the wind shift : placed the carpenters by the mainmast with broad ases, knowing from experience, that at the moment you may want to cut away to save the ship, an axe may not be found. Went to supperbread, cheese, and porter : the purser frightened out of his wits about his bread-bags; the two marine officers as white as sheets, not understanding the ship's working so much, and the noise of the lower deck guns, which by this time made a pretty screeching to people not used to it: it seemed as if the whole ship's side was going at each roll. Wooden, our carpenter, was all this time smoking his pipe and laughing at the doctor; the second lieutenant upon deck, the third in his hammock. At ten o'clock I thought to get a little sleep ; came to look into my cot - it was full of water; for every seam, by the straining of the ship, had begun to leak; stretched myself, therefore, upon deck between two chests, and left orders to be called should the least thing happen.
" At twelve, a midshipman came to me – Mr. Archer, we are just going to wear ship, sir.'-' Oh, very well, I will be up directly; what sort of weather have you got ?' - It blows a hurricane,' Went upon deck, found Sir Hyde there: • It blows damn'd hard, Archer.'-' It does indeed, sir.'-'I don't know that I ever remember its blowing so hard before, but the ship makes very good weather of it upon this tack, as she bows the sea; but we must wear her, as the wind has shifted to the S. E., and we
are drawing right upon Cuba; so do you , go forward, and have some hands stand by; loose the lee-yardarm of the foresail, and when she is right before the wind whip the clue garnet close up, and roll the sail up.' -'Sir, there is no canvas can stand against this a moment; if we attempt to loose him, he'll fly into rib. bands in a moment, and we may lose three or four of our people; she'll wear by manning the fore-shrouds.' -'No, I don't think she will.''I'll answer for it, sir; I have seen it tried several times on the coast of America with success.' "Well, try it; if she does not wear, we can only loose the foresail afterwards.' This was a great condescension from such a man as Sir Hyde. However, by sending about two hundred people into the fore rigging, after a hard struggle she wore : found she did not make so good weather on this tack as the other, for as the sea began to run across, she had not time to rise from one sea before another dashed against her. Began to think we should lose our masts, as the ship lay very much along, by the pressure of the wind constantly upon the yards and masts alone ; for the poor mizen-staysail had gone in shreds long before, and the sails began to fly from the yards through the gaskets into coach-whips. My God! to think that the wind could have such force!
“ Sir Hyde now sent to see what was the matter between decks, as there was a good deal of noise. As soon as I was below, one of the marine officers calls out, Good God! Mr. Archer, we are sinking; the water is up to the bottom of my cot.'-' Poo, poo, as long as it is not over your mouth you are well off ; what the devil do you make this noise for?' I found there was some water between decks, but nothing to be alarmed at; scuttled the deck, and let it run into the well : found she made a great deal of water through the sides and decks; turned the watch below to the pumps though only two feet of water in the well, but expected to be kept constantly at work now, as the ship laboured much, with hardly a part of her above water but the quarter-deck, and that but seldom.
His Majesty's ship Pelican was driven upon the Morant Quays : the crew were saved except four. His Majesty's ship Ulysses
Annual Register, 1781, p. 92.
" Come, pump away, my boys : Car. relieved me at the pumps. Who can penters, get the weather.chain pump attempt to describe the appearance of rigged.' - All ready, sir.'-" Then things upon deck ? if I was to write for man it, and keep both pumps going.' ever I could not give you an idea of it:
“ At two o'clock the chain-pump was a total darkness all above the sea on choaked : set the carpenters at work to fire, running as it were in Alps, or Peaks clear it; the two hand-pumps at work of Teneriffe- mountains are too common úpon deck. The ship gained upon us an idea ; the wind roaring louder than while our chain-pumps were idle; in a thunder (absolutely no flight of imagina. quarter of an hour they were at work tion); the whole made more terrible, if again, and we began to gain upon her. possible, by a very uncommon kind of While I was standing at the pumps blue lightning. The poor ship very much cheering the people, the carpenter's mate pressed, yet doing what she could; shaking came running to me with a face as long her sides, and groaning at every stroke. as my arm — Oh, sir, the ship has Sir Hyde upon deck, lashed to windward. sprung a leak in the gunner's room.' I soon lashed myself alongside of him, • Go, then, and tell the carpenter to and told him the situation of things come to me, but don't speak a word to below; the ship not making more water any one else.' --Mr. Goodinch, I am than might be expected with such told there is a leak in the gunner's room; weather ; that I was only afraid of a go and see what is the matter, but don't gun breaking loose.— I am not in the alarm any body, and come and make least afraid of that; I have commanded vour report privately to me.' A little her six years, and have had many a gale after this he returned : “Sir, there's of wind in her, so that her iron work is nothing there, 'tis only the water washing pretty well tried, which always gives way up between the timbers that this booby first — Hold fast! that was an ugly sea; has taken for a leak.'-' Oh, very well; we must lower the lower yards, I believe, go upon deck, and see if you can keep Archer — the ship is much pressed.'any of the water from washing down “If we attempt it, sir, we shall lose them, below.' -'Sir, I have had four people for a man aloft can do nothing ; besides, constantly keeping the hatchways secure, their being down would ease the ship but there is such a weight of water upon very little. The mainmast is a sprung deck that nobody can bear it when the mast - I wish it was overboard without ship rolls.'
carrying any thing else along with it ; * Shortly afterwards the gunner came but that can soon be done, the gale to me: Mr. Archer, I should be glad cannot last for ever, 'twill soon be dayyou would step this way into the maga- light now.' zine for a moment. I thought some “ Found by the master's watch it was damned thing was the matter, and ran five o'clock, though but a little after four directly, “Well, what's the matter here?' by ours; glad it was so near daylight,
- The ground tier of powder is spoiled; and looked for it with much anxiety. and I want to show you that it is not out Cuba, thou art much in our way! of carelessness in me in stowing it, for Another ugly sea ! - Sent a midshipman no powder in the world could be better to bring news from the pumps : the ship stowed : Now, sir, what am I to do? if was gaining on them very much, for they you don't speak to Sir Hyde, he will be had broke one of their chains, but 'twas angry with me.' I could not but smile, almost mended again. News from the to see how easy he took the danger of the pump again — she still gains ! - a heavy ship, and said to him, . Let us shake off sea! Back water from to leeward half way this gale of wind first, and talk of the up the quarter-deck — filled one of the damaged powder afterwards.'
cutters upon the booms, and tore her all “ At four, we had gained upon the to pieces; the ship lying almost upon her ship a little, and I went upon deck, it beam ends, and not attempting to right being my watch. The second lieutenant again. Word from below that the ship
was dismasted. His Majesty's ship Southampton was dismasted, and driven to Wreck Reef, to leeward of Port Royal. She had
Annual Register, 1781, p. 92.
still gained on them, as they could not cut away, that she might not pay round stand to the pumps, she lay so much broadside to : lost five men cutting away along. Said to Sir Hyde, « This is no the foremast, by the breaking of a sea on time, sir, to think of saving the masts board, just as the mast went : that was shall we cut the mainmast away?' — nothing - every one expected it would • Aye, as fast as you can. I accordingly be his own fate next. Looked for day. went into the weather-chains with a break with the greatest impatience: at pole-axe to cut away the lanyards ; the last it came but what a scene did it batswain went to leeward, and the car. shew us! the ship upon a bed of rocks, penters stood by the mast: we were mountains of them on one side, and all ready; when a very violent sea broke cordilleras of water on the other; our right on board of us, carried every thing poor ship grinding, and crying out at upon deck away, filled the ship full of every stroke between them; going away water ; the main and mizen-masts went, by piecemeal: however, to show the the ship righted, but was in the last unaccountable workings of Providence, struggle of sinking under us. As soon that often what appears to be the greatest as we could shake our heads above water, evil proves to be the greatest good, tirat Sir Hyde exclaimed, “ We are gone at unmerciful sea lifted, and beat us up so last, Archer-foundered at sea!'--'Yes, high among the rocks, that at last the sir, farewell ; and the Lord have mercy ship scarcely moved. She was a very on us!' I then turned about to look strong ship, and did not go to pieces at forward at the ship, and thought she the first thumping, though her decks was struggling to get rid of some of the tumbled in. We found afterwards that water : but all in vain — she was almost she had beat over a ledge of rocks, almost full below, God Almighty! I thank a quarter of a mile without us; where, if thee, that now I am leaving this world, she had struck, every soul of us must which I have always considered as only have perished. I now began to think of a passage to a better, I die with a full getting on shore; so stripped off my coat hope of thy mercies, through the merits and shoes for a swim, and looked for a of Jesus Christ thy Son, our Saviour !' line, to carry the end with me. I luckily I then felt sorry that I could swim; as could not find one, which gave time for by that means I might be a quarter of recollection : "This won't do for me, to an hour longer dying than a man who be the first man out of the ship, and first could not, as it is impossible to divest lieutenant; we may get to England again, ourselves of a wish to preserve life. At and people may think I paid a great deal the end of these reflections, I thought I of attention to myself, and did not care felt the ship thump, and grinding our for any body else — No, that won't do; feet: it was so. "Sir, the ship is ashore.' instead of being first, I'll see every man, • What do you say?' -' The ship is sick and well, out of her before me.' ashore, and we may save ourselves yet.' “I now thought there was not a probaBy this time the quarter-deck was full bility of the ship's going soon to pieces, of men that had come up from below, therefore had not a thought of instant and, the Lord have mercy upon us ! death : took a look round with a sort of Aying about from all quarters.
philosophic eye, to see how the same * The ship made every body sensible situation affected my companions; and now that she was ashore, for every stroke was not surprised to find the most threatened a total dissolution of her whole swaggering, swearing bullies in fine frame; found she was stern ashore, and weather, were now the most pitiful the bow broke the sea a good deal, wretches on earth, when death appeared though it was washing clean over at before them. Several people that could every stroke. Sir Hyde – Keep to the swim went overboard to try for the quarter-deck, my lads — when she goes shore ; nine of them were drowned be: to pieces 'tis your best chance. A pro. fore our eyes. However, two got safe ; vidential circumstance got the foremast by which means, with a line we got a
an engagement with a French frigate off Cape François. Many houses and piazzas were blown down. His Majesty's ship Thun
Naval Chronicle, vol. xii. p. 183.
hawser on shore, and made fast to the on shore, and set the carpenters to work rocks, upon which many went, and on her. In two days she was ready ; arrived safe. There were some sick and and at four o'clock in the afternoon I wounded on board, who could not go embarked with four volunteers, and a this way; so we got a spare topsail-yard fortnight's provisions; hoisted English from the chains, and got one end on colours as we put off from the shore, shore and the other into the cabin window, and received three cheers from the lads so that most of the sick got ashore this left behind, which we returned, and set way. As I had determined, so I was the sail with a light heart; having not the last man out of the ship, which was about least doubt, that, with God's assistance, ten o'clock. The gale now began to we should soon come back and bring break. Sir Hyde came to me, and, them all off. Had a very squally night, taking me by the hand, was so affected and a very leaky boat, so as to keep two as to be hardly able to speak : " Archer, buckets constantly bailing Steered her I am happy beyond expression to see you myself the whole night by the stars ; and on shore ; but look at our poor Phænix !' in the morning saw the island of Jamaica, I turned about, but could not say a single distant about twelve leagues. At eight word, being too full: my mind had been in the evening arrived in Montego Bay. too actively employed before, but every “ I must now begin to leave off, thing now rushed upon me at once, so particularly as I have but half an hour to that I could not contain myself, and I conclude, else my pretty little short letter indulged for a full quarter of an hour. will lose its passage, which I should not By twelve it was pretty moderate ; got like, after being ten days at different some sails on shore, and made tents; times writing it, beating up with the found great quantities of fish drove up convoy to the northward, which is a by the sea in holes amongst the rocks; reason that this epistle will never read knocked up a fire, and had a most com- well; for I never sat down with a proper fortable dinner. In the afternoon we disposition to go on with it; but as I made a stage from the cabin windows to knew something of the kind would please the rocks, and got out some provisions you, I was resolved to finish it; yet it and water, lest the ship should go to will not bear an overhaul; so don't pieces, and then we must all perish with expose your son's nonsense. hunger and thirst; for we were upon a “ But to proceed. Instantly sent off desolate part of the coast, and under a an express to the admiral; another to the rocky mountain, which could not supply Porcupine man of war; and went myself us with a single drop of water.)
to Martha Brae, to get vessels ; for all “. Slept comfortably this night; and their vessels here, as well as many of the next day, the idea of death vanishing their houses, were gone to Moco. Got by degrees, the prospect of being prisoners, three small vessels, and set out back perhaps during the war, at the Havana, again to Cuba; where I arrived the and walking three hundred miles to it fourth day after leaving them. I thought through the woods, was unpleasant; how- the ship's crew would have devoured me ever, to save life for the present, employed on my landing; they wisked me up on this day in getting more provisions and their shoulders presently, and carried me water on shore, which was not an easy to the tent where Sir Hyde was. I must matter, on account of decks, guns, and omit many little anecdotes that happened rubbish that lay over them, and ten feet · on shore, for want of time; but I shall of water besides. In the evening I pro. have a number of stories to tell you when posed to Sir Hyde to repair the remains I get alongside of you; and the next of the only boat left; and that I would time I visit you, I shall not be in such a venture to Jamaica myself, and, if I got hurry to quit you as I was the last; for safe, would bring vessels to take them all then I hoped my nest would have been off- a proposal worth thinking of. It pretty well feathered. But my tale is was next day agreed to; so got the cutter forgot. I found the Porcupine had
derer, seventy-four, Hon. Commodore Walsingham, Captain Nicholls, was lost, with all her crew. The Stirling Castle, sixty-four, Captain R. Casket, was lost on the Silver Keys, and only fifty of her crew saved. The Deal Castle, twentyfour, Captain Hawkins, was lost on Puerto Rico; and the Endeavour brig, fourteen guns, Lieutenant Woolridge, was lost on Jamaica.
On the 26th of November, the Comte de Grasse arrived at Martinico, from the Chesapeak. He had sent a squadron to St. Domingo, to escort the French trade to Europe, and expected to meet at Martinico a reinforcement of twelve sail of the line, with troops under the command of the Marquis de Vaudreuil. In this he was disappointed: they were intercepted by Admiral Kempenfelt.
The conseil souverain, the 8th of November, 1781, issued an arrêt interdicting persons of colour from carrying arms.
" Art. 15. of the edict of the King, of 1685; to be executed agreeably to its form and tenor. Negroes found on Sundays and holidays in the towns or environs, or on the high roads, armed with clubs, cutlasses, or other arms, without a ticket from their master mentioning the same, to be arrested and conducted to the nearest gaol; and to be condemned, by a simple order of the seneschal, within the twenty-four hours, to receive nineteen lashes.”
On the 24th of November, 1781, the French King issued an ordinance concerning ecclesiastical missions in the French colonies in America.
“ Art. 10. The prefets apostoliques are desired to see that the
Beatson's Memoirs, vol. v. p. 449.
arrived that day, and the lads had built a boat, almost ready for launching, that would hold fifty men; which was intended for another trial, in case I should have foundered.
“ Next day, embarked all our people that were left, amounting to 250; for some had died of the wounds they got coming on shore; others by drinking rum; and others had straggled into the country. All our vessels were so full of people, that we could not take away the few cloathes that were saved from the wreck; that was a trifle, since our lives and liberties were saved.
“ To make short of my story, we all arrived safe at Montego Bay; and shortly after at Port Royal, in the Janus, which was sent on purpose for us, and were all
honourably acquitted for the loss of the ship. I was made admiral's aide-decamp, and a little after sent down to St. Juan's, captain of the Resource, to bring what were left of the poor devils to Blue-fields, on the Musquito shore, and then to Jamaica, where they arrived after three months' absence, and without a prize, though I looked out hard, off Portobello and Carthagena.
“ Found, in my absence, that I had been appointed captain of the Tobago; where I remain his Majesty's most true and faithful servant, and my dear mother's “ Most dutiful Son,
Naval Chronicle, vol. ii. p. 286.