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families and their valuables farther into the country. The English advanced towards the town, which they entered the following morning, and found it empty: here the general fixed his headquarters, and opened a negociation with some of the principal Spaniards, who came into the town to treat. The governor, an old decrepid man, was brought in by two men in his hammock to sign the articles, by which it was agreed that the Spaniards should evacuate the island. The inhabitants, however, did not consider themselves bound by the treaty, and many of them escaped through the woods, with their moveable property, to other parts of the island. Colonel Bullard, with 2000 men, was sent after them, who returned with his party on the first of June, bringing with him some cattle, and giving notice of the great abundance that there were of them in the remote parts of the island,
The Discovery, one of the largest vessels in the fleet, was set on fire by filling brandy-wine in the steward's room, by the flame of the candle, and entirely destroyed. Some of the frigates that were ordered to cruize off Española sent in some prizes: so that the importance of the conquest was immediately felt, and grants of land were made to the officers and men.
June the 25th, the fleet bound for England set sail from Jamaica. Vice-Admiral Goodson, in the Torrington frigate, was left commander-in-chief in the Indies, with the frigates and best sailing Flemish ships, making twelve sail, exclusive of victuallers and prizes.
The homeward-bound fleet passed through the Gulf of Florida, and on the 8th of July lost the Paragon Navy, a second-rate: she was destroyed by fire, supposed to have taken place by some neglect in the steward's room.
August the 30th, the fleet made the Lizard, and anchored the following day at Spithead.
Venables was soon afterwards sent to the Tower.
Major-General Fortescue was left at Jamaica, with the command of the army. , Major Sedgewicke was sent out to Jamaica as a commissioner, in the place of Butler, who had returned to England with Venables. Sedgewicke arrived there in October; but finding the other commissioners were dead, he, with the principal officers, framed an instrument of government, constituting themselves a
Rapin, tom. ii. p. 595.
Edwards, vol i. p. 209.
I'" It was supposed by Sedgewicke, that the soldiers had killed 20,000 (cattle) in the course of the first four months after their arrival; and as to horses, they were
in such plenty, says Goodson, that we accounted them the vermin of the country, - B. Edwards, vol. i. p. 195.
his Majestys de Longvilid of St. Christe
ral for hi and Private
Supreme Executive Council for governing the island. General Fortescue was declared president, and dying soon afterwards, Colonel Edward D’Oyley, the next in command, was chosen to preside in his room."
At this time not a single descendant of the aboriginal Indians existed on the island. When the Spaniards first settled upon it, there were 60,000 at least !
" Articles and agreements concluded and settled between the two nations residents and inhabitants of the Island of St. Christopher, between Brother Philippes de Longvilliers, Bailly de Poincy, Counsellor to his Majesty of France, in his Councils of State and Private Councils, Governor and Lieutenant-General for his Majesty in the American Islands, Territory, and Confines dependant upon the French Government, and the Honourable Colonel Edward Ewrard (Everard), Governor of the English in the said island, by the authority of His Highness the Lord Protector of England, Scotland, and Ireland, assisted on each part by the undersigned officers, commissioners :
" In the first place, the articles settled between the governors, Captains d’Enambuc and Du Rossey and Mr. Thomas Warner, the 28th of April, 1627; those of the 3d of October 1638, between M. de la Grange Fromenteau and the said Mr. Warner; those between the said Lords de Poincy and Warner, of the 14th September, 1644: as also, those between the said Lords De Poincy and the Honourable Rowland Rich, governor, of the 18th October, 1649 — shall keep their full force and power, according to their contents, except such as are here altered.
66 To maintain the union between the two nations, it is agreed that the articles which follow shall be faithfully observed :
“ 1. That nothing disrespectful shall be spoken by any of the English, relative to the respect and honor of his Majesty of France — of his government and governors; neither shall any of the French say any thing disrespectful of the respect and honour of His Highness of England, the Lord Protector of England, of his Government, nor of his governors, neither of the nations in general.
“2. That the old marks, separations, and divisions of the lands shall be replaced.
“ 3. That the frontiers of the anchorage of Sandy Point shall be marked by a right line, drawn from the fig-tree straight to the sea, between which fig-tree and the sea shall be raised a pillar in a right line, and the limits of high lands shall be taken, SE. by E. straight upon the top of the mountain.
Edwards, vol. i. p. 169.
Du Tertre, tom. i. p. 476.
1 Three commissioners were sent out to superintend and direct the operations, Winslow, Serle, and Buller :- Edwards, vol. i. p. 201., the commanders disagreed in their views, and the commissioners
could not controul them. Edward Winslow, the principal commissioner, died on the passage from Hispaniola to Jamaica. - Hutchinson, vol. i. p. 187. a. a.
6 4. That no vessel, either French or English, or freighted by any one of either nation, shall remain more than twenty-four hours at anchor in the road off Sandy Point, without permission from the English governor; neither shall the English governor suffer any vessel to anchor, above all, an enemy to the French nation, without permission of the French governor.
" 5. That the French nation has a just title to the half of the mines and sulphur pits; as the English have also a just title to the half of the salt-ponds, of which, and of the adjacent lands, an equal separation, division, or partition shall be made, when it shall be found convenient to do so.
“ 6. That the liberty of cutting wood and of hunting shall no longer be general : each shall take and hunt upon their own lands.
67. That if any servant or slave runs away from his master, and withdraws himself into the territories of the other nation, and it shall be sufficiently proved that he has been employed more than twenty-four hours by any inhabitant, or sent off the island, the said inhabitant shall be obliged to repay his master the full damages and interests which the governor of his nation shall judge proper to condemn him to pay — exclusive of 2000 pounds of tobacco for the benefit of the master for whom he should have kept the servant or slave. The governors of the two nations bind themselves to constrain, by force, such as shall contravene this convention.
“ 8. That no man of either nation, although he be free, shall be retained to work for any inhabitant of the other without a passport from the governor of the nation where he resides, under the penalty of 1000 pounds of tobacco from the offender, payable each to his own nation.
69. The great roads in the lands of either nation, whether they lead to the salt-ponds, mines, or sulphur pits, shall be common for the passing of the subjects of both nations, either on foot, or horseback, or in a carriage, as the occasion may require.
“ 10. If the subjects of either nation, Christians or slaves, commit any theft or unjust act, or assault any person, he shall be referred to four honourable persons of each nation to prove the fact, and then sent before twelve persons, that is to say, six of each nation, by whom the delinquent shall be tried; and if convicted, he shall receive the punishment on the lands of his own nation, upon the lines and frontiers of the two nations.
11. That the merchants shall not refuse their merchandize,
either in the French territory or in the English, at the same price which they sell to the nation where they reside, under the penalty, for disobedience, of 2000 pounds of tobacco, to be paid by the merchant who shall sell at a higher price, and of 1000 pounds by the inhabitant who shall have paid more than the price payable to the nation where the fault shall be committed.
6 12. That a publication or order shall be issued, for returning the servants or slaves which may be found in the one territory belonging to the other, because eight days afterwards, if they are seen, the delinquents shall be punished according to article the seventh.
- 13. That all the articles that are not comprised in the present agreement and ratification shall be held as null. And the present shall be published, as they have been concluded for the friendship of the two nations, to be inviolably observed on both sides, as acts of agreement made without constraint.
" That the said Lords de Poincy and Everard, with the undersigned commissioners, have promised and sworn to maintain and observe, upon their faith and honour, each for his nation.”
A treaty of peace, between France and the Republic of England, Scotland, and Ireland, was signed at Westminster, upon the 3d of November, 1655 ; and by an additional article, the United Provinces of the Low Countries were included in the treaty ! - "Comme aussi tous les alliez et confédérés des deux Etats, qui dans l'espace de trois mois prochains en suivant la date de ces presentes desireront estre compris audit Traité.”
This additional article is dated the 23d of November, 1655.
An accident happened at Mariegalante, which threatened to occasion a war with the Caribs. Captain Baron, the Carib, friend of M. Houel, was at Mariegalante with a piragua full of his countrymen, and invited by the commandant into the fort, and made very drunk. Baron having had occasion to go out, upon his return was refused admittance by the sentry: upon this Baron made some disturbance, and was put in irons. The commander of the fort sent an exaggerated account to Guadaloupe of Baron's conduct, and received an order to send him immediately to Guadaloupe, which was done.
Baron's relatives at Dominica ,uneasy at his long absence, went to Mariegalante to inquire for him: three of them were immediately put to the sword, and one of the three was Baron's youngest and favourite boy, Marivet. When the news reached Guadaloupe, Baron became frantic with rage and grief, and made all possible exertions to escape, that he might rouse his countrymen to revenge. To appease him, the commandant of Mariegalante
Du Mont, tom. vi. partie 2. p. 121.
Du Tertre, tom. i. pp. 472, 473.
was put in irons in Baron's presence, to whom a promise was given, that the murderer of his son should be punished with death. In expectation of seeing the sentence executed, Baron staid at Guadaloupe; the governor deferring the execution from time to time, till at last he persuaded Baron that it was necessary it should be put off until the arrival of his brother !
The Carib chief returned to Dominica; but on coming back to Guadaloupe, and discovering that the offender was at liberty, nothing could pacify him. The governor, therefore, applied to his countrymen, pointed out the disadvantages that must result from their making war against the French, and contrived to soothe them, so that they refused to recommence the war.
The Spaniards in Jamaica had little intercourse with the midland and northern districts, except to their old town of Seville. Their trade consisted chiefly in supplying the Spanish homewardbound ships with fresh provisions, which the island produced in great abundance. They killed 80,000 hogs every year for their lard, which they sold at Carthagena.
With the English, the first objects of military rage were the religious edifices. Parties were sent in quest of the Spaniards: twenty-four were taken, and fifty surrendered; the rest skulked in small bodies. Having driven their cattle into the mountains, and ruined their provision-grounds, the English troops were suddenly in want of food, their allowance being half a biscuit a day to each man. In less than one month after their landing, only five field officers were in health. Many officers and men had died : 2000 were sick, and the rest mutinous !
Oliver Cromwell issued a proclamation relative to Jamaica, in which he states, “That the island, being well stored with horses and other cattle, healthful and fertile, and generally fit to be planted ; and that divers merchants being desirous to undertake settlements upon the island — he had, by the advice of his council, taken care, not only for strengthening the island, but for settling a civil government, by such laws as have been exercised in colonies of the like nature. And for the encouragement of such persons, he had given orders that every adventurer to that island should be exempt from paying any excise or duty on any goods which he or they should transport there for seven years to come, from the Michaelmas following:
“ Also, that no tax should be levied upon any commodity, the produce of the island, imported into the dominions belonging to the commonwealth, for the space of ten years, to be accounted from the Michaelmas following:
“ Also, that no embargo, or other hindrance, upon any pretence whatsoever, be laid upon any ships or adventurers bound to the island: