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or cause to be delivered, unto the said King of Great Britain, or such ministers of his as shall be thereunto appointed, all necessary instruments and orders duly dispatched.

« 8. But if any of the subjects of the said King of Great Britain shall have sold the goods which he possessed in that island, and the price of the sale hath been paid unto him, he shall not be restored and put into possession of those goods by virtue of the present agreement, before he hath actually paid back the price of the money he hath received.

• 9. But if it happen (which yet is not known hitherto) that the subjects of the said Most Christian King are beaten out of the said island of St. Christopher's by the subjects of the abovementioned King of Great Britain, before or after the subscription of the present agreement; nevertheless, things shall be restored unto that state and condition wherein they were in the beginning of the year 1665, that is, before the declaration of the war now determining: And the said King of Great Britain, as soon as he hath notice thereof, shall without any delay deliver, or cause to be delivered, unto the above-mentioned Most Christian King, or his ministers thereunto appointed, all instruments and orders duly made, which are necessary for that restitution.

66 12. Also, the Most Christian King shall in like manner restore unto the King of Great Britain the islands called Antigoa and Monsarat (if they be in his power), and any other islands, countries, forts, and colonies which may have been gotten by the arms of the Most Christian King, before or after the subscription of the present treaty, and which the King of Great Britain possessed before he entered into war with the States General (to which war this treaty doth put an end.) On the other side, the said King of Great Britain shall, after the manner aforesaid, restore unto the above-mentioned Most Christian King all islands, countries, forts, and colonies, any where situate, which might be gotten by the King of Great Britain's arms before or after the subscription of the present agreement, and which the Most Christian King possessed before the 1st of January, 1665. nastane 66 13. But if any of those servants and slaves that served the

possess the behobetonee Soo January 100% English in that part of the isle of St. Christopher's which belonged to the foresaid King of Great Britain, as also in the islands called Antigoa and Monsarat, when they were taken by the arms of the foresaid Most Christian King, shall desire to return again unto the subjection of the English (yet without all force or constraint), it shall be free and lawful for them so to do, within the space of six months, to be reckoned from the day on which the same islands shall be restored. But if the English, before they went off the said islands, sold some servants, and the money was

Pol. State Great Brit. vol. xxxiv. p. 109. 1727.

paid for them; those servants are not to be restored upon other terms, but that the price be restored and repaid.

66 14. In like manner, if some of the foresaid King of Great Britain's subjects (who were not reckoned among servants and slaves) shall hire themselves, in the quality of a soldier, a labourer, or under whatsoever other title, to the foresaid Most Christian King, or any of his subjects that dwelleth in the foresaid islands, covenanting for wages by the year, the month, or the day, after the restitution of the island or islands, such hiring of one's self, or obligation, is to cease, wages being received after the rate of labour already performed; and it shall be free for them to return unto their countrymen, and live under the dominion of the King of Great Britain.

6 17. — Allows twelve days for captures to be made in the neighbouring seas — six weeks from the neighbouring seas to Cape St. Vincent - ten weeks from the said cape to the Equator, including the Mediterranean — and six months from the Line, through the whole world.

When the treaty of Breda was concluded, the English logwood cutters settled at Cape Catoche, or the Laguna de Terminos; and after the signing of the treaty, the privateers of Jamaica, being obliged to quit that way of life, became logwood cutters, and settled with others of their countrymen, at Triste, and the Laguna de Terminos.

M. Barre received the news of the signing of the treaty the 15th of October, and upon the 20th he sent a flag of truce to the blockading squadron at St. Christopher's, to propose a cessation of hostilities, until the arrival of his orders to publish the articles of peace.

This was in part agreed to by the English. The supplies for St. Christopher's were to pass the squadron in the night, and the French were to supply Nevis and the squadron with refreshments at a fair valuation.

December 26th, M. Barre published the declaration of peace at St. Christopher's; but he determined to delay, as much as possible, complying with the articles. Lord Willoughby, with three line-of-battle ships, arrived at Nevis the 28th of December, and sent the next morning, to claim the English prisoners, and invite the French commander, M. Barre, to dinner. Three hundred prisoners were liberated by the French next morning, and M. Barre dined with his lordship.

After this, Lord Willoughby sent Colonel Stapleton to claim the release of Thomas Warner, the governor of Dominica, which he had great difficulty in obtaining. When M. Barre liberated him, he sent to say, he must live for the future as an

Harris's Voyages, vol. ii. p. 268.

Du Tertre, tom. iv. p. 325. 328. 334.
Du Tertre, tom. IV. p. !

pirates, wrecke September, a detached from

Englishman, and not as a Carib. To this Lord Willoughby returned an answer which did not please the Frenchman, and re-established Mr. Warner as governor of Dominica

Upon the 23d of May, a " Traité, pour la continuation et renouvellement de la paix entre Charles II. Roi d'Espagne, et Charles II. Roi d'Angleterre,” was concluded at Madrid.

There is no mention made in this treaty of the West Indies. The subjects of each country, by Article 2, may 6 librement et surément passer, par eau et par terre, aux confins, pais, terres, royaumes, isles, seigneuries, citez, villes, villages fermez de murailles, fortifiez ou non fortifiez, leurs havres et ports, ou on a accoutume jusqu'ici de negocier et trafiquer.

Captain Sayle, in his passage to Carolina, was forced, by stress of weather, twice among the Bahama Islands. Upon his return to England, he made so favourable a report of the one he had named New Providence, that the Duke of Albemarle, Lord Craven, Sir George Carteret, Lord Berkley, Lord Ashley, and Sir Peter Colliton, applied for and obtained a grant of all the Bahama Islands. But though this was the first legal settlement of Providence, it had for many years been a shelter for pirates, wreckers, and other disorderly persons.

The 22d of September, an English fleet, consisting of ten sail, six of whom had been detached from Nevis, arrived off Cayenne. The landing was feebly opposed by the French; De Lezy, the governor, was wounded in the shoulder, and left the island, followed by the officers and most of the inhabitants. The fort, commanded by a serjeant called Ferant, capitulated. The English found about fifty soldiers, and 100 other inhabitants, upon the islands, including women and children; after taking away the guns and ammunition, they destroyed the fort and buildings, and in fifteen days from the surrender they abandoned the island, and made sail for Surinam.

The Chevalier de Lezy proceeded to Surinam, and informed the Dutch of the arrival of Admiral Harman off that coast.

Two hundred Frenchmen from Cayenne got there before the arrival of the English fleet. Admiral Harman cannonaded the fort a day, without making a breach: then landed his men, and proceeded to carry it by assault. The major commanding is accused of betraying the place: the majority of the Dutch, however, joined him; and the governor, seeing the English enter the place, surrendered himself prisoner of war.

De Lezy, with his officers, proceeded to Guadaloupe; and in November, with about 200 followers, and several Negroes, returned to Cayenne, where several of the inhabitants who had

by the Fy

Du Mont, tom. vii. partie 1. pp. 27. 287. Brookes's Gazetteer. Harris's Voyages, vol. ii. p. 284. Du Tertre, tom. iv. pp. 310. 314, 315.

fed for shelter to the Indians rejoined him, and the colony was re-established. Admiral Harman returned to Barbadoes, laden with the prize goods from Cayenne and Surinam, and his prisoners. The latter were immediately sent to Martinico, by Lord Willoughby's.orders.

1668.

Henry Morgan, with twelve sail and 700 fighting men, landed in Puerto de Santa Maria, in Cuba, and proceeded to Puerto del Principe, which they entered after an action of four hours. The inhabitants, having notice of the attack, had removed their valuables. The prisoners were confined in the churches, where several were starved to death, and others were tortured to force a confession of where their money was secreted. Morgan obtained only 50,000 pieces of eight, in money and goods, and 500 oxen, with sufficient salt to cure them : he made his prisoners assist in killing and salting them for his fleet; and, fearful of being attacked by a superior force, he embarked as expeditiously as possible, and returned to Jamaica, where the men's prizemoney did not suffice to pay their debts.

Morgan, therefore, proposed another expedition, without imparting the name of the place he intended to attack. There had been a quarrel between the Frenchmen who were with him and the English, and he could only muster nine sail of vessels, some of which were only large boats, and 460 fighting men : with these he stood over to the Spanish Main, near Costa Rica, and upon his arrival informed his followers of his intention to storm Puerto Bello by night. Some objections were made to the attempt, by those who thought their numbers too few to succeed against so strong a city; but Morgan persuaded them by saying, “ If our number is small, our hearts are great; and the fewer persons we are, the more union, and the better shares we shall have in the spoil !”! He then proceeded to Puerto de Naos, ten leagues west of Puerto Bello, and up the river to Puerto Pontin : here they left their vessels, with a few men on board; the rest landed at midnight, at Estera longa Lemos - an Englishman who had been a prisoner there serving as a guide. They got to the outposts of the city, surprised and seized the sentinel, and to the nearest castle, without being discovered ! This they summoned to surrender, with threats of giving no quarter if the garrison resisted. Resistance was made — the castle was stormed-and, to strike terror into the Spaniards,

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Esquemeling's Hist. of the Buccaneers, chap. 12, 13.

1 It should seem that he had read Shakespear.

Morgan put the whole garrison into one room over a magazine, which he set on fire, and blew them all up!

The city was unprepared to resist: the inhabitants, panicstricken, were throwing all their jewels and money into wells and cisterns ! One party of the pirates, assigned for the purpose, ran immediately to the cloisters, and seizing all the women and priests, secured them prisoners.

The governor of the city, unable to rally the terrified citizens, retired to one of the castles, from which he so annoyed the assailants, that at one time Morgan began to despair of success. The English colours were opportunely hoisted upon one of the smaller castles, and shouts of victory reanimated him: he now determined to storm the largest fort by escalade, and sent to the governor to say, that unless he surrendered, the scaling-ladders should be placed against the fort by the monks and nuns, his prisoners : the ladders were made broad enough to admit four persons to ascend at once. The governor, faithful to his duty, opposed the placing of the ladders by these miserable people to the last, and killed great numbers of them : it was, however, done, and the pirates stormed the place, throwing fire-balls from the walls among the Spaniards. In vain the governor encouraged his men : many were killed by him for quitting their posts, and many of the assailants fell under his sword. At last, refusing the quarter which was offered, and disregarding the entreaties of his wife and daughters, who on their knees besought him to surrender, he found the death he sought.

It was almost dark, and the attack had commenced at daylight. Morgan inclosed all his prisoners in the castle, and the wounded were placed in an adjoining room, with guards over them. The conquerors abused their victory, by committing every excess ferocious men could invent. Glutted with rape and murder, and drunk, fifty determined men might have retaken the city, and destroyed them all!

Next day, the work of torture began, to force the prisoners to tell where their treasures were hid. Numbers died upon the rack: and though Morgan knew the governor of Panama was coming with a large force against him, secure of a retreat to his ships, he kept the place for fifteen days -- many of his followers dying during that time from their excesses. He desired his principal prisoners to procure from the inhabitants 100,000 pieces of eight, to ransom the town; otherwise he threatened to destroy it, and all the castles.

The near approach of Don Juan Perez de Guzman, with 1500 troops, called his attention. Instead of retreating at once, Morgan placed 100 of his men, well-armed, at a narrow pass through which Don Juan must pass: these put to flight the van

Charlevoix, tom. iii. p. 107.

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