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guard of Don Juan's forces, and obliged him to retire. Don Juan sent a flag of truce to Morgan, to say if he did not immediately depart, no quarter should be given to himself or followers.. Morgan said, he would go if the contribution was paid - if not, he would destroy the city and the castles, and put to death his prisoners. Knowing himself unable to prevent the execution of the threat, and astonished at the bravery of such a handful of men, Don Juan left the inhabitants to do the best they could, and sent to Morgan for a pattern of those arms with which he had achieved such a conquest. Morgan received the messenger with great civility, and gave him a pistol and a few small bullets to carry back, “ as the pattern he requested, of the arms with which he had taken Puerto Bello: and this he would lend his master for twelve months, after which time he would come to Panama for it.” Don Juan returned the present, with thanks for the loan, and at the same time sent Morgan a gold ring set with a fine emerald ; and desired he would not give himself the 6 trouble of coming to Panama, as he had done to Puerto Bello; for, he did assure him, he would not speed so well there as he had done here.”

Morgan got the ransom he asked— embarked some of the best guns from the castle — spiked the rest — and returned to Cuba, where he divided his plunder: it amounted to 250,000 pieces of eight, besides rich merchandize of all sorts. After the division, he returned to Jamaica.

In the beginning of February, Lord Willoughby, with a great number of colonists, sailed from Barbadoes, to reestablish the colonies of Antigua and Montserrat, which the French and Caribs had quite desolated during the war. In passing St. Vincent's and Dominica, his lordship, through the mediation of Mr. Thomas Warner, concluded a peace with the Caribs, and left him as governor of Dominica.

Lord Willoughby arrived at Martinico the 10th of February, and after visiting the other islands, in May he sent Colonels Drake and Stapleton to M. Laurent, the governor of St. Christopher's, to demand the English part of that island, and to say, that if M. Laurent was disposed to deliver it up, he was ready to shew him his orders to receive it.

M. Laurent sent to request his lordship would wait two or three days, as M. Barre, the French lieutenant-general, was expected every day: and as soon as he arrived, that the island should be surrendered. Dissatisfied with this delay, the next morning Lord Willoughby, with four sail, proceeded to Basse Terre, St. Christopher's, and landed : he was received in great form, and delivered to M. Laurent an order from the King of

Du Tertre, tom. iv. pp. 337, 338.

France, to surrender the English part of the island, in compliance with the treaty, and another from the directors of the Company to the same effect. Having perused these, M. Laurent remarked, that the King's letter referred him to the orders which M. Barre had for the restitution, and was not positive to him. The letter was addressed to him, and says, “ Et j'ay voulu vous en donner aussi advis, par cette lettre, affin qu'estant informé de mon intention, vous-vous y conformiez, sans delay n'y difficulté, en tout ce qui dependra de l'authorité de vostre charge : Et n'estant la presente, à autre fin, ie ne vous la feray plus expressé.” M. Chambre, the Company's agent, observed, that the royal orders for delivering up the island were addressed to the Company, none of whom were on the island, and not to him in their absence: they both, therefore, begged Lord Willoughby would wait until Lieutenant-General Barre arrived.

Unable to procure compliance with the treaty, or any thing satisfactory upon the subject, Lord Willoughby left the place, and sent a protestation to the governor, declaring the French answerable for all the consequences which might ensue.

After his departure, M. Laurent, expecting some attempt would be made to obtain possession of the island by force, published a proclamation, declaring he would put all the English upon the island to the sword, if any attempt was made by their countrymen to force a compliance with the treaty.

In answer to Lord Willoughby's protest, M. Barre made another, demanding reparation for some depredations committed by an English vessel at Cayenne since the signing of the peaceand for twelve Negroes, belonging to an inhabitant of Guadaloupe, which the governor of Montserrat kept — and for eight others, taken by two English vessels from Martinico since the publication of peace — and for a vessel belonging to the Company, detained by his Britannic Majesty's ship Crown: and as the reimbursing the French for what they “ justly" claimed came to more than twice the value of what was demanded from them, they therefore hoped the affair would be terminated by an exchange of some island instead of their part of St. Christopher's! The French inhabitants sent to their West India Company a memoir, containing sixteen reasons why the treaty had better be broken : it was not complied with till the month of June !

Upon the 2d of May, 1668, a treaty of peace between the crowns of France and Spain was concluded at Aix la Chapelle. The West Indies are not mentioned in this treaty. The buccaneers pretended, as they had not signed the treaty, or been called to the conference, that they were not bound to abide by its stipulations : they therefore continued their usual depredations.

Du Tertre, tom. iv. pp. 342. 350, 351, 352. Labat, tom. vi. p. 78.

Du Mont, tom. vii. partie 1. p. 89. Charlevoix, tom. iii. p. 106.

Sir Thomas Modiford, by his own authority, declared war against the Spaniards; and in October the Oxford frigate brought instructions from his Majesty (Charles the Second) to countenance the war — " and impowering him to commission whatever persons he thought good to be partners with his Majesty in the plunder, they finding victuals, wear, and tear !"

Bridgetown, in Barbadoes, was destroyed by fire.

The wild dogs in the island of Tortuga had increased, and almost destroyed the wild hogs, which were the principal food of the inhabitants. To remedy this inconvenience, M. Ogeron, the governor, poisoned the carcases of several horses, which were laid in different parts of the island, and in six months an incredible number of the dogs died in consequence, but still their numbers were not apparently diminished. These dogs were the produce of those imported by the Spaniards for the purpose of hunting down the Indians."


Upon the 29th of November, 1669, a treaty, between Charles the Second, King of Great Britain, and Frederick the Third, King of Denmark, was signed at Westminster. The following article is extracted from it :

6. Conventum tamen et conclusum est quod subditi Serenissimi Magnæ Britanniæ Regis ad portus prohibitos, quorum

Long's Jamaica, vol. i. p. 626.

of the Buccaneers, chap. 5.

Am. An. vol. i. p. 337. Esquemeling's Hist.

Du Mont, tom. vii. partie l. p. 126.

1 “ These dogs run up and down the attempting many times to escape. At woods and fields, commonly fifty, three last, flying, one dog leaping upon his score, or more, together; being withal so back, fastened on his testicles, which at fierce, that they will often assault an entire one pull he tore in pieces: the rest of the herd of wild boars, not ceasing to worry dogs, perceiving the courage of their comthem till they have fetched down two or panion, fastened likewise on the boar, and three. One day, a French buccaneer presently killed him. This done, all of showed me a strange action of this kind. them, the first only excepted, laid them Being in the fields a hunting together, we selves down upon the ground about the heard a great noise of dogs which had sur prey, and there peaceably continued, till rounded a wild boar. Having tame dogs he, the first and most courageous of the with us, we left them to the custody of the troop, had eat as much as he could : our servants, being desirous to see the when this dog had left off, all the rest fell sport. Hence my companion and I in to take their share, till nothing was climbed up two several trees, both for left! What ought we to infer from this security and prospect. The wild boar, notable action, performed by wild animals, all alone, stood against a tree, defending but this — that even beasts themselves are himself with his tusks from a great num. not destitute of knowledge, and that they

er of dogs that inclosed him ; - killed give us documents how to honour such as with his teeth, and wounded several of have deserved well ?” Esquemeling's them. This bloody fight continued about History of the Buccaneers, chap. 5. an hour; the wild boar, meanwhile,

in præcedentibus fæderibus mentio sit, neque colonias absque speciali licentia Regis Daniæ et Norwegiæ, petita et obtenta, nullatenus accedant, nisi evidens maris periculum aut tempestatum impulsus, vel piratæ insequanter, accedere vel intrare coegerint, ubi tunc omnino ipsis mercandisare licebit quemadmodum invicem nec subditi Serenissimi Regis Daniæ et Norwegiæ ad colonias Britannicas accedere debent, nisi speciali licentia Serenissimi Regis Britanniæ petita et obtenta.”

M. Ogeron returned to France, and was re-appointed governor of Tortuga and the coast of St. Domingo for three years. The abuse which the governors of the Windward Islands made of their authority had obliged the French King to give his commissions only for three years. Previous to M. Ogeron's quitting Paris, he presented a memoir to M. Colbert, stating, that when he was first appointed governor of Tortuga and its dependencies, they contained only 400 men, but that in four years they had increased, and were then 1500. He also particularly recommended the government to establish a colony in Florida.

- Spain, for want of ships and sailors of her own,” began to hire Dutch shipping to sail to the Indies, though formerly so careful to exclude all foreigners from thence!

In March, Henry Morgan, called the buccaneer, with eight vessels and 500 men, arrived off Maracaibo, at daylight: the entrance had been strengthened by another fort since the attack of L'Olonnois. Morgan attacked it immediately, but without success : at dark he resolved to carry it by boarding, and found the Spaniards had abandoned it, leaving a match on a train of gunpowder, to blow up the fortress. Morgan saved both his own and his companions' lives, by snatching it up in time to prevent the explosion.

Next day they proceeded to Maracaibo, which they entered without opposition: and not being satisfied with the plunder which he was three weeks in collecting, like L'Olonnois, he determined to attack Gibraltar. The inhabitants fled upon Morgan's approach, who caught a slave, and by his assistance discovered the hiding-place of about 250 Spaniards, many of whom were tortured to make a discovery of their riches. After five weeks' possession of the place, during which time all sorts of enormities were committed, he returned to Maracaibo.

When the pirates were about to quit the lake, Morgan found his passage out blockaded by the Spanish admiral, Don Alonzo del Campo and Espinosa, with three men of war, one carrying forty, one thirty, and the smallest twenty-four guns, while the largest of Morgan's vessels only carried fourteen. The castle at

Charlevoix, tom. iii. p. 108. Long's Jamaica, vol. i. p. 598.

Hist. of the Buccaneers, chap. 14.


the entrance of the lake, which had been abandoned by the Spaniards, was also again manned and armed.

Espinosa sent to Morgan, offering him a free passage out, provided he would give up his prisoners and plunder : otherwise, he was not to expect any quarter. Espinosa's terms were rejected. The buccaneers were not inclined to part with their plunder, but resolved to force their way. They fitted up a vessel which they had taken at Gibraltar as a fire-ship, and, to disguise her, cut ports in her sides, in which they placed Negro drums, to look like guns; and upon the deck they placed several billets of wood, dressed like soldiers, with caps, muskets, and bandaliers. This was to precede the other vessels, on board of which the plunder and prisoners were stowed. The 30th of April, 1669, they stood towards the Spaniards, and anchored at dark just without gunshot of them. At day-break Morgan weighed, and stood directly for them. The Spaniards also got under weigh, but the largest of their ships was grappled by the fire-vessel, and burnt — another was carried by boarding — and the third was run on shore by her commander, and burnt, to prevent falling into the hands of the English, who, flushed with success, landed and attacked the castle, but were repulsed with the loss of thirty killed, and many wounded. The survivors retreated to their ships, and Morgan returned to Maracaibo with his prize, which he refitted for himself. He left one of his vessels to get up what she could from the wrecks, which vessel succeeded in finding 15,000 pieces of eight, besides plate.

Morgan's next consideration was how to pass the castle: for this purpose he sent some of his prisoners, to say if he was not allowed to pass in safety, all the prisoners he had should be put to death. This had no effect upon Espinosa : he refused to listen to any terms, and sent the supplicants to say he was determined to do his duty. Morgan divided the booty, which amounted to 35,000 pieces of eight, besides slaves and merchandize gave every man his share, and proceeded towards the entrance : here they anchored, and embarked several of their men in canoes, which were sent on shore, apparently with the intention of landing - instead of which, the men laid themselves close down in the bottom of the boats, which were rowed back by a few hands, and then sent on shore again, as though with another cargo of men, who returned in the same manner. This false landing of men had the desired effect: the Spaniards expected the castle would be attacked from the land side during the night, and moved most of their guns, and directed their attention more particularly to that side. In the night, with the ebb-tide, Morgan weighed, and without setting any sail, let his squadron drift down till they

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