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About the beginning of this year, he heard that two vessels from Flushing had been at Bayaha, trading for hides with the buccaneers, and at Port de Paix ; that they had also sent a boat to Tortuga, where one of their captains, called Pietre Constant, in reply to an officer of the Company, who wished to oppose his traffic, had said, that to prevent his trading, they must be stronger than he was. Two days afterward, D'Ogeron was told that all the Cul de Sac (west coast of St. Domingo) had revolted: he immediately repaired there, calling, upon his passage, at Petit Goave, where he expected to have been arrested, and where he understood that the revolt was not only general in the west, but that the disaffected had sent to the inhabitants and buccaneers in the north, to join them.
The Dutch were equally interested with the adventurers in opposing the monopoly: the two captains, Constant and Marc, represented to them, that they ought not to submit to the Company, and suffer themselves to want the necessaries of life through the exercise of a crying monopoly; assuring them, that the Dutch would procure them as good cloth for twenty-pence an ell, as the Company sold them for sixty pounds of tobacco and a barrel of lard for two pistoles, for which they must give the Company 750 livres; and other things in proportion.
At Leogane, Renou, Gaultier, and Villeneuve, the three, officers of that quarter, sent orders to forbid the French from trading with the strangers. The Dutch captains said the land belonged to the King of Spain, and it was strange the Frenchmen should attempt to prevent their trading: and hearing that M. Renou had seized two of their boats which were trading on the coast, they proceeded to Petit Goave, retook their boats, and brought him and M. Villeneuve prisoners on board their ship — sending advices in all directions, for the inhabitants to join them.
D'Ogeron, the governor, went on board, demanded his officers, and succeeded in getting them released : he then returned to Petit Goave, and having anchored in the port, sent his captain, Sanson, with letters to some of the inhabitants. Sanson was arrested, and a fire of musketry opened upon the vessel, which wounded M. Renou, and obliged D’Ogeron to return to Tortuga; from whence he dispatched a messenger on the 9th of June, to M. de Baas, governor-general of the islands, then at St. Christopher's, for assistance: the messenger was taken ill upon the road, and did not reach St. Christopher's till the 25th of September. M. de Baas immediately sent him to Grenada to M. de Garbaret, who was there with a squadron of
King's ships, with orders for M. de Garbaret to proceed directly to assist M. d'Ogeron : this order De Garbaret refused to obey.
In the interim, D'Ogeron found the disaffection increasing, and began to make preparation to retire, with such as chose to follow him, to the islands in the Bay of Honduras, or to Florida.
De Baas procured orders from France for De Gabaret to proceed to St. Domingo. Gabaret had also orders to take or destroy all Dutch vessels he should meet with, and to follow D'Ogeron's directions for re-establishing good order in the colony, and the punishment of offenders.
The French government also directed their ambassador in Holland to demand reparation for the outrage committed by the two captains at St. Domingo, and to declare that no quarter would be given to the crews of any vessels found upon that · coast, or off Tortuga.
M. du Lion also, the governor of Guadaloupe, expected that the English at Nevis would be joined by some buccaneers from St. Domingo, and attack St. Christopher's.
The population of Barbadoes, this year, was calculated at 50,000 Whites, and upwards of 100,000 black and coloured inhabitants, whose productive labour employed 60,000 tons of shipping.
Sir Thomas Modyford was recalled from the government of Jamaica, and Sir Thomas Lynch appointed lieutenant-governor and commander-in-chief, with the same powers as his predecessor.
Sir Thomas Lynch's instructions, Art. 35, states —
66 And forasmuch as there are many things incident to that government, for which it is not easy for us to prescribe such rules and directions for you as our service and the benefit of that island may require: instead of them, you are, with the advice of the Council, to take care therein, as fully and effectually as if you were instructed by us: of which extraordinary cases giving us due information, you shall receive further ratifications from us as our service shall require.”
He was ordered to revoke all commissions and letters of marque that had been granted to privateers, and to endeavour to prevail on their crews to turn planters; and as an inducement, thirtyfive acres of land were to be assigned to all those who might be willing to plant. He was also ordered “to proclaim a general pardon and indemnity for all crimes and offences committed by them since the month of June 1660, and previous to the ratifica. tion of the treaty of Peace.”
Charlevoix, tom. iii. pp. 119, 120. Colquhoun's Brit. Emp. p. 350.
Edwards, vol. iii. p. 295. Long's Jamaica, vol. i. pp. 167. 304.
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Such of the privateers as sailed with commissions, were to pay " the tenths and fifteenths of their booty" to the governor, as the crown's share!
In Jamaica, there were 2720 militia, and 2500 seamen“ privateering being the great business and concern of the island!”
There were seventy sugar plantations, which produced 1333 hhds. of 15 cwt. each.
By 22 & 23 Car. II. c. 26. If any vessel shall take on board any sugars, tobacco, ginger, indigo, &c. at any of the English plantations, “ before bond be given, as directed by 12 Car. II., or certificate produced from the officers of some custom-house in England, &c., that such bond hath been there given; or shall carry the said goods to any place, contrary to the tenor of such bonds — the same shall be forfeited, with the ship, and all her furniture, guns, ammunition, &c.; one moiety to the king, and the other moiety to him that will sue for the same in any of the said plantations, or in the Court of the High Admiral of England, or of any Vice-Admiral, or any Court of Record in England.”
Upon the 14th of August, 1670, Admiral Henry Morgan, Esq. sailed from Port Royal, Jamaica, with eleven sail of vessels and 600 men: he had a commission from Sir Thomas Modyford, Bart, governor of Jamaica, dated July 22d, 1670, granted with the advice and approbation of his Majesty's Honourable Council there fully assembled, to take and destroy all the Spanish ships he should meet in the American seas, and to attempt, take, or surprize, by force of arms, any of his Catholic Majesty's cities, towns, forts, or fortresses, where he should, by any intelligence, be advised that they were storing or making magazines of arms, ammunition, or provisions, or levying men for the propagating or maintaining the war against the island of Jamaica.
On the 2d of September he arrived at the Isle Avache, from whence he dispatched Vice-Admiral Collier (it would, perhaps, be difficult to find the date of this officer's commission as viceadmiral), on the 6th, with six sail and 350 men, to get prisoners on the Main, for intelligence for the better steering their course and managing their " design the most for his Majesty's honour and service, and the safety of Jamaica."
Upon the 30th of September, Captain John Morris arrived at the Isle Avache, with a Spanish vessel of eight guns, commanded by Immanuel Rivers, who burnt the coast of Jamaica: on board her were three original commissions, two of which were sent to Sir
Thomas Modyford. On the 7th of October, a hurricane drove all the fleet on shore in the harbour, except Morgan's vessel, all of
Long's Jamaica, vol. i. pp. 14. 379. Jacob's Law Dict. Plantations.
Gent. Mag., August, 1740, p. 385.
which, except three, were got off again, and made serviceable. In this month three French vessels agreed to accompany Morgan, and on November 7th, more vessels joined him from Jamaica.
On the 20th, Admiral Collier returned from the Main, with provisions, and two Spanish vessels, one of which, the Galardeene, assisted Rivers in burning the coast of Jamaica. On the 22d, the admiral ordered all captains on board him, thirty-seven in number, to arrange the plan of operations for their cruize. The attack of Panama was unanimously agreed upon; and to obtain prisoners to serve for guides, it was voted, that Providence being the King's ancient property, and most of the people there being from Panama, that no place could be more fit.” [This island was also called St. Catherine's.]
Accordingly, upon the 16th of December, Commodore Morgan made sail for the island of St. Catherine, and arrived within sight of it upon the evening of the 20th. He sent two small vessels to guard the harbour during the night, that no person might escape to the Main and give the alarm. At noon the next day, he anchored the fleet in L’Aguada Grande, where the Spaniards had a four gun battery, which they abandoned. Morgan landed 1000 men, and marched himself at their head, having for guides some who were at the island when Mansvelt took it. They arrived, in the evening, at a place where the Spanish generals used to reside; but they had quitted the large island and retired to the small one, the passage to which was by a draw-bridge. This small island had forts and batteries in all the accessible places.
The assailants were obliged to pass the night on the large island, over their ancles in water, and in a very heavy rain. At daylight the Spaniards began to cannonade them; at noon the weather cleared up, and Morgan sent four men in a boat, with a flag of truce, to summon the Spaniards to surrender the island, and to signify to them, that if they made any resistance, he would put the whole to fire and sword. The governor sent a major and another officer to see in what manner he could surrender the fort, without the King of Spain and the governor general, under whose orders he was, accusing him of cowardice. They told Morgan it was the governor's intention to surrender the island, but that it must be so contrived that nobody must lose either their life or their honour; Morgan asked how this could be done ; they replied, that he must send some men to attack the fort St. Jerome, at the bridge, and that he must at the same time send a boat to attack it in the rear — that then the governor, under pretence of passing to the grand fort, would go out, and they might take him prisoner, which would facilitate the capture of the other forts; but
Histoire des Aventuriers, tom. ii. p. 112.
during the whole of the time, both sides were to keep up a constant firing, taking care, however, not to kill any body!
Morgan consented to all; and in the evening marched to the place, and in the manner agreed upon. But as he did not rely implicitly upon the Spaniards' word, he ordered his men to load with ball, and in case any one of them was wounded, to fire with effect. The farce, however, was carried on without loss, and Morgan became master of the island and its fortresses. The prisoners amounted to 450; that is to say, ninety soldiers, forty of whom had wives, and these had forty-three children ; thirtyone slaves belonging to the King, with eight children; eight felons; thirty-nine slaves belonging to individuals, with twentytwo children; twenty-seven free blacks, with twelve children. The men and children were left at liberty, but the women were all put into the church.
There were ten forts upon the island, which was about a league and a half in circumference.
The first, at the entrance into the harbour, formed by the two islands, was called Fort St. Jerome: it was a battery surrounded with walls, eight guns were mounted in it, and there were accommodations for fifty men.
The second was a battery, sheltered by gabions, named St. Mathew's Platform, on which three eight-pounders were mounted.
The third was the principal fort, called Santa Theresa, and had twenty guns; it had four bastions, a dry ditch, and a drawbridge. It was built upon a rock, and could only be approached by the draw-bridge.
The fourth was called the Platform of St. Augustin — a battery covered by gabions, with three guns (eight-pounders).
The fifth, the Platform of the Conception, had two eightpounders.
The sixth, the Platform of Notre Dame de la Guadaloupe, had two twelve-pounders.
The seventh, the Platform of St. Sauveur, had two eightpounders.
The eighth, the Platform des Canoniers, had two eight-pounders.
The tenth, the Fort of St. Joseph, was a redoubt, and had six twelve-pounders.
In the magazine there were 30,000 lbs. of powder.
All the munitions of war were put on board the ships, and all the batteries destroyed, except the Forts St. Jerome and St. Theresa : these were garrisoned.
Three galley slaves, from Panama, were upon the island : these were just what Morgan wanted : two of them were Indians, and one a Mulatto : the Mulatto professed his readiness to act as a
Histoire des Aventuriers, tom. ii. p. 112.