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inoperative by major breakdown, accident, or other circumstances and such repairs are deemed by the Director of the Agency to be of greater urgency than the construction of new facilities.

NATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE FOR AERONAUTICS SEC. 10. (a) The National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics on the effective date of this Act shall cease to exist as such and all real and personal property, personnel, funds, and records of that organization are hereby transferred to the Agency. The Agency shall wind up any outstanding affairs of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics not otherwise provided for in this Act. Except as otherwise directed by the President, the members of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics shall serve as the members of the National Aeronautics and Space Board until their successors are appointed by the President as provided in section 4 of this Act.

(b) Section 2302 of title 10 of the United States Code is amended by deleting the phrase “or the Executive Secretary of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics." and by inserting in lieu thereof the phrase "or the Director of the National Aeronautics and Space Agency."'; and, section 2303 of said title 10 is amended by deleting the phrase "The National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics.” and by inserting in lieu thereof the phrase "The National Aeronautics and Space Agency.'

(c) Section 1 of the Act of August 26, 1950 (5 U. S. C. 22–1), is amended by deleting the phrase "National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics” wherever it appears and by inserting in lieu of the deleted words, in each instance, the phrase "National Aeronautics and Space Agency'.

(d) The Unitary Wind Tunnel Plan Act of 1949 (50 U. S. C. 511) is amended by deleting the phrase "The National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (hereinafter referred to as the 'Committee')” and by inserting in lieu thereof the phrase “The National Aeronautics and Space Agency (hereinafter referred to as the Agency')” and is further amended by deleting the word “Committee” wherever it appears and by inserting in lieu thereof, in each instance, the word “Agency".

Senator JOHNSON. I believe it is entirely fair to say that seldom, if ever, has a Congress and an administration faced a more challenging task.

We are dealing with a dimension-not a force.
We are dealing with the unknown--not the known.
While the present is urgent, the real imperative is the future.

What we do now may very well decide, in a large sense, what our Nation is to be 20 years and 50 years and 100 years from now—and, of no lesser importance, our decisions today can have the greatest influence upon whether the world moves toward a millennium of peace or plunges recklessly toward Armageddon.

Our ideal should be to convert outer space into a blessing for mankind, rather than a threat of the destruction of civilization.

A decade ago the Nation and the Congress were faced with the very great challenge of instituting policy with regard to the new force of nuclear fission. Then, as now, questions of peace and war dominated our thoughts and discussions, but it is inappropriate and irrelevant to draw an extended parallel between these two eras.

The challenge of the atomic age, at the beginning, was to harness a vast destructive power to prevent its use in war.

The challenge of the space age, at the beginning now, is to open a new frontier and to permit its use for peace.

Twelve years ago much of our attention was dedicated to choosing between civilian control or military control. I believe that choice is not really before us now. On all sides, there is wide agreement that while space adds a new dimension to the technology of weapons and the strategy of security, the ultimate opportunity of space is not that

of a final battleground. Freemen have no intention of rattling sabers among the stars.

It is appropriate and heartening, I think, that we begin this work now on a base of unity and broad agreement, rather than on a base of disagreement and contention. I see no reason why this spirit cannot be maintained.

The primary legislation before the Committee is legislation drafted by the advisers to the Chief Executive. It has been introduced here, upon request, by myself and by the Senior Senator from New Hampshire.

I know, on the part of the sponsors and I believe on the part of the authors, there is full expectation that public examination and discussion of the terms of the legislation can contribute many strengthening recommendations.

Such constructive contributions will be welcome from any source.

I believe it is well to say, however, that this Committee wishes to confine its deliberations to the issues which are most pertinent and most in need of immediate attention.

We could, of course, receive extensive and all but endless testimony about the possibilities and probabilities of outer space and what it may mean in a technical way. However, more than six months ago a committee of this Senate undertook an extensive and exhaustive study of that kind. No substantial purpose would be served by devoting further time to repetition of such testimony.

Furthermore, there is in the House an eminent committee led by the distinguished gentleman from Massachusetts, Mr. McCormack, which is holding hearings in the same field. We are not here to duplicate those hearings but to act in accordance with the facts which are presented to us.

One of the important features of our legislative system is that it provides checks and balances and assures that in the course of the legislative process there are a number of points at which proposals must be tested, and whatever is missed at one point will usually be found at another.

What is before use now is not a question of whether we should begin the orderly exploration of space but, rather, the question of how such exploration may best be directed and initiated. We are past the point of studying sketches. It is time to get the blueprints drawn and start pouring concrete for the foundation.

There is an obvious need within our Government for a structure and organization to give purpose, direction, and impetus to the national effort. That is what this committee is here to consider and to recommend.

We cannot expect and do not expect to resolve this question for all time to come. Knowing as little as even our best minds know about space, it would be the height of vanity for us to suppose that we could-in an age not yet 12 months old-settle national policy for decades or centuries ahead.

On the contrary, our particular challenge--as I see it—is to devise a pattern which encourages rather than inhibits the full response of American initiative to the infinite challenges of outer space.

If we create the agency which the challenge requires, it will be unlike rather than like anything now existing in the Federal Government. Certainly, it will require the closest attention from the Congress in

the years immediately ahead to make certain that this potential is fully realized. For that reason, we must also make provision for Congress to give permanent attention to this new enterprise.

Space, as I said, is a new dimension. Hence, it in no way detracts from or usurps the role of existing agencies or the programs of committees but, rather, it adds to and greatly expands the role of each. In fact, if our blueprints are proper and our building adequate, we should assure that after this period of transition there will be a diminished need for special agencies and special committees to deal with space.

Space affects all of us and all that we do, in our private lives, in our business, in our education, and in our Government. We shall succeed or fail in relation to our national success at incorporating the exploration and utilization of space into all aspects of our society and the enrichment of all phases of our life on this earth.

We are very much indebted this morning to our first witness, Dr. James H. Doolittle, who is Chairman of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics.

Dr. Doolittle, you are no stranger to congressional committees. You have been consulted by Congress on many occasions, and I have never known any time when you did not make a distinct contribution to our deliberations. In this instance, I think you have an unusually good background for this subject.

You have had practical experience in the field of science, engineering, business, and military aviation.

Furthermore, you head an agency that would be directly affected by the measure which has been sent to us by the President.

In order to get some background for your testimony, I am going to place in the record at this point your biography.

Without objection the biography of Dr. James H. Doolittle, vice president and director, Shell Oil Co., Chairman of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, will be included in the record at this point.

(The biography referred to is as follows:) Dr. Doolittle was born on December 14, 1896, in Alameda, Calif. He received his bachelor of arts degree from the University of California in 1922, and his master of science in 1924, and doctor of science in 1925 from M. I. T.

He was a member of the United States Army Air Corps from 1917-30. From 1930–40 he was manager of the aviation department of the Shell Petroleum Corp. In 1940 he returned to active duty in the Air Corps advancing to lieutenant general in 1944. He was Commander of the 12th Air Force, Strategic Air Force, and the 15th and 8th Air Force. He resigned in 1946 to return to his present position with the Shell Petroleum Corp. He has been Chairman of the NACA since 1956.

Dr. Doolittle has received many awards including the Congressional Medal of Honor. He has served the Government in many capacities including Chairman of the Secretary of War's Board on Enlisted Men-Officer Relationship, the Joint Congressional Aviation Policy Board, and Chairman of the President's Airport Commission. He is a member of the Institute of the Aeronautical Sciences, the Royal Aeronautical Society, and the National Aeronautical Association.

Senator JOHNSON. General Doolittle, I understand that you have a prepared statement and the committee will be delighted to have you proceed in your own way.



Dr. DOOLITTLE. Mr. Chairman and members of the committee, and counsel, on January 31, 1958, the first of our satellites was put into orbit. The chairman of this committee, the Honorable Lyndon B. Johnson, Senator from Texas, has noted that, and I quote:

The Explorer is a triumph of persistence against great odds * * * Our satellite is very aptly named. It is truly an explorer-a representative of the free people searching for the facts of a totally new dimension into which men and women will soon step. And, in its search for facts, it brings us face to face with a sharp reality which we cannot ignore * * *

The previous month, on the 54th ann versary of the historic first flights by Wilbur and Orville Wright, I said:

There has been exploration since the beginning of mankind, since the beginning of curiosity. The airplane has made well known most of the remote spots on this globe, but exploration will continue. The new exploration will be in science and space. We as a Nation, must have vision and must work hard if we are to be leaders in this new type of exploration ***. We, the United States of America, can be first. If we do not expend the thought, the effort, and the money required then another and more progressive nation will. They will dominate space, and they will dominate the world. There is a nation with this ambition. We must not let it prevail.

It is with these thoughts in mind that I speak in support of Senate bill 3609, cited as the "National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958.' On April 2, the day the President transmitted to the Congress a special message recommending the establishment of a National Aeronautics and Space Agency, he sent a memorandum of instructions to the Secretary of Defense and to me, as Chairman of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. I should like now to present to this committee a copy of this communication. (The communication referred to is as follows:)


Washington, April 2, 1958. Memorandum for

The Secretary of Defense

Chairman, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics I have today transmitted to the Congress a special message recommending the establishment of a National Aeronautics and Space Agency. A draft of legislation carrying out this proposal is being transmitted to the Congress by the Director of the Bureau of the Budget.

The new Agency will be based on the present National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics and will continue that agency's weļl-established programs of aeronautical research. In addition, the new Agency will be responsible for programs concerned with problems of civil space flight, space science, and space technology. The instructions outlined below are concerned with these new activities.

The ultimate potentialities of space flight cannot now be fully grasped. Since some of these potentialities are clearly of significance from the standpoint of our national security, the Department of Defense will have a continuing interest in the programs to be undertaken and will continue to sponsor programs which may be peculiar to or primarily associated with military weapons systems or military operations as well as certain research and development which may be of a general supporting character. Furthermore, I desire that the skills and experience that have been developed within the Department of Defense be fully utilized in support of civil space programs. However, it is appropriate that a civilian agency of the Government take the lead in those activities related to space which extend

beyond the responsibilities customarily considered to be those of a military organization.

I consider it especially felicitous that the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics will provide the basic organization on which the new Agency will build. Not only does the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics itself already have a firm understanding of the key problem areas involved and a tested method of approaching such problems, but also this org nization and the Department of Defense have long enjoyed a highly productive working relationship. This relationship will ease the period of transition that lies ahead and will provide a basis for the close cooperation that will be needed to solve the difficult problems that will be encountered. It is intended that the new Agency continue to perform for the Department services in support of military aeronautics and missiles programs of the type now performed by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics and also provide similar services with respect to military space programs; the Department, in turn, will provide support essential to the success of the new Agency.

In order that necessary work proceed without loss of momentum pending enactment of the proposed legislation, in order that interim measures may be consistent with the intent of this legislation, and in order that implementation of the legislation, when enacted, may be promptly initiated, I desire that the Department of Defense and the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics take the following actions:

1. The National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics should prepare and present to the appropriate committees of the Congress a full explanation of the proposed legislation and its objectives.

2. The National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics should proceed to formulate such detailed plans as may be required to reorient its present programs, internal organization, and management structure to carry out the functions to be assigned to the National Aeronautics and Space Agency, including the functions now being performed by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, and should also plan and propose such additional actions and programs as may be necessary to implement the proposed legislation. Such actions would include determination of any requirements for additional staff, facilities, or funds that may be needed in the immediate future.

3. The Department of Defense and the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics should jointly review the pertinent programs currently underway within or planned by the Department, including those authorized by me on March 27, 1958, and should recommend to me as soon as possible which of these programs should be placed under the direction of the new Agency. The Department of Defense and the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics should also prepare an operating plan to assure adequate arrangements for utilizing in support of the new Agency, either by cooperative arrangements or by transfer to the new Agency, appropriate organizations, facilities, and other functions now within the Department. These actions should be taken in the light of the fact that the proposed legislation contemplates that the new Agency will be given responsibility for all programs except those peculiar to or primarily associated with military weapons systems or military operations. Supporting research and development should be coordinated to provide for the needs of both military and civil programs without unnecessary duplication. It should be noted that Public Law 85–325 authorized the Department of Defense for a period of 1 year to engage in advanced space projects designated by me. The 1-year period will come to a close February 12, 1959. Since the new Agency will absorb the going organization of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, it should be capable of assuming direction of appropriate programs prior to that date.

4. The National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics should discuss with the National Science Foundation and the National Academy of Sciences, as well as other governmental and nongovernmental bodies, the matter of participation of the scientific community on a continuing basis in planning and coordinating the scientific programs for the use of space vehicles in civilian space science. The best scientific judgment available in determining space-science objectives should be utilized. Matters related to dissemination of the data collected should also be considered.

5. The Department of Defense should identify and report to me what programs now appear to be needed in support of well-defined military requirements. It is understood that the Advanced Research Projects Agency will continue to serve as the focal point for such programs within the Department.

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