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9th. To observe strict neutrality in the contests that nil between the inhabitants and the Government of another Stal
IX. It is the duty of the authorities of each of the St: fulfil and execute the Constitution and laws of the Unit decrees and orders of the President thereof, and the maiul; the national tribunals and courts.
§. In each of the States entire faith and credit shall b< to the registers, acts, sentences, and judicial proceedings other States.
X. It is obligatory upon the authorities of every State t render to the authorities of any other, in which a crime ma been committed, the person claimed, and against whom a w of arrest, not opposed to the individual rights enumeral Article XV of this Constitution, shall have been issued. 1 to be proved by the necessary documents accompanying the wi of arrest.
XI. It is the duty of the Governments of those States in individuals responsible for punishable acts committed again: Government of a neighbouring State may seek asylum, to them, when so required, into the interior, and to keep them at a distance from the frontier as will prevent them from further a hostility.
XII. There shall be no slaves in the United States of Colo:
XIII. No enlistments or levies are permitted in the Stat the Union having for their object to attack the liberty, pendence, or public tranquillity of any other State or nation.
XIV. The Legislative Acts of the Assemblies of the S which clearly go beyond their constitutional sphere of actioi liable to be suspended and annulled as provided for by this Cona tion; but the State Bhall not on that account incur any responsil whatever should such Acts not have been enforced or carried oi
Sect. 2.—Guarantee of Individual Bights.
XV. The individual rights appertaining to the inhabitants persons passing through the United States of Columbia, forn essential and invariable basis of the Union between the Sti and they are acknowledged and guaranteed by the General Govi ment, and by the Governments of all and each of the Sta they are:
1st. The inviolability of human life, by virtue of which General Government and that of the States engage not to de( the penalty of death in their laws.
2nd. Not be condemned to corporal punishment for more tl 10 years.
3rd. Individual liberty without any other limitation than
liberty of another; that is to say, the power to do or not to do anything, the commission or omission of which shall not redound to the prejudice of any other person or the community.
4th. Personal security; by which is meant that it shall not be attacked with impunity by auy other individual or by the public authority. Nor can any one be arrested or imprisoned excepting on a criminal charge, or by way of correctional punishment; nor tried by special commissions or extraordinary tribunals; nor suffer any penalty without having been heard and condemned on trial; all by virtue of pre-existent laws.
5th. Property; no person can be deprived thereof excepting by way of penalty or general contribution, according to law, or when some grave cause of public necessity judicially declared may require it, and prior indemnification has been made.
In case of war the indemnity need not precede, and the appropriation may be declared by authorities not of the judicial order.
§. The provision in this section does not authorize confiscation in any case whatever.
6th. The absolute liberty of the press, and the free circulation of all printed matter whether national or foreign.
7th. The free expression of thought, whether by word of mouth, or in writing, without any limitation whatever.
8th. Liberty to travel in the territory of The United States, and to depart therefrom without passport or permission of any authority during time of peace, unless the judicial authorities should have decreed the detention of the individual.
§ In time of war the Government may require passports from persons travelling through the theatre of military operations.
9th. Liberty to exercise any industry whatever, and to work freely but without usurping the industry of another, the property in which may have been temporarily guaranteed by law to the authors of useful inventions; or those reserved by the Union or tho States for fiscal purposes, and without obstructing any ways of communication or endangering security or salubrity.
10th. Equality; consequently, it is not lawful to grant privileges or legal distinctions in favour of or for the sole benefit of the recipients; nor to impose special obligations rendering the persons subject thereto of worse condition than other people.
11th. The liberty to give or to receive such instruction as may be preferred in establishments not supported by public funds.
12th. The right to receive a speedy decision on the petitions addressed in writing to any corporation, authority, or public functionary upon any matter of general or private interest.
13th. Tho inviolability of dwellings and private papers, so that the former cannot be searched nor the latter intercepted or examiued, [1862-03. Liii.] U
except by the competent authority, and for the purpose and in the form prescribed by law.
14th. Liberty of meeting unarmed.
15th. Liberty of possessing arms and ammunition, and of trading in those articles in time of peace; and
16th. The free profession in public or private of any religion, provided that nothing is done incompatible with the national sovereignty or for the purpose of disturbing the public peace.
Sect. 3.—Delegation of Functions.
XVI. All matters of government, the exercise of which is not expressly, especially, and clearly delegated by the States to the General Government, are of the exclusive dominion of the States themselves.
XVII. The United States of Columbia agree to establish a General Government which shall be popular, elective, representative, alternative, and responsible, and to whose authority they subject themselves in the matters which are now to be stated:
1st. Foreign affairs, external defence, and the right of declaring and directing war and making peace.
2nd. The organization and maintenance of the public force in the service of the General Government.
3rd. The establishment, organization, and administration of the public credit and the national revenue.
1 4tb. The determination of the strength of the armed force in peace and in war, and of the public expenses chargeable upon the Treasury of the Union.
5th. The regulation and administration of the foreign and coasting trade, of the fortresses, maritime and river ports, and the dry ports on the frontiers; arsenals, docks, and other public establishments and property belonging to the Union.
6th. The regulation of such inter-oceanic communications as . exist or may be opened in the territory of the Union, and the navigation of the rivers which water the territory of more than one State or flow on to that of a neighbouring nation.
7th. The formation of the general census.
8th. The settlement of boundaries and the general territorial demarcation with neighbouring nations.
9th. The determination of the national flag and arms.
10th. Whatever relates to the naturalization of foreigners.
11th. The right to decide upon all questions and differences arising between the States, upon hearing the parties interested.
12th. The coining of money, and determination of its standard, weight, pattern, form, and denomination.
, 13th. The regulation of official weights and measures.
14th. The legislation and judicial procedure in cases of prizes, recapture, piracy, or other crimes, and, in general, of all occurrences upon the high seas, the jurisdiction whereof appertains to tho nation in conformity with international law.
15ch. Judicial and penal legislation in cases of violation of international law; and
16th. The power of issuing laws, decrees and resolutions, civil and penal, respecting the affairs or matters which, according to this and the following Article, are within the competency of the General Government
XVIII. The following matters are within the competency of the General Government, although not exclusively so:
1st. The promotion of public instruction.
3rd. Statistics and the geographical or topographical maps or charts of the towns and territories of The United States; and 4th. The civilization of the aborigines.
Sect. 4.—General Condition*.
XIX. The Government of The United States cannot declare or make war upon the States without the express authority of tho Congress, and without having previously exhausted all the means; of conciliation required by the national welfare and the public, interest.
XX. "With the exception of the National Congress, the Supremo Federal Court, and the Executive Power of the nation, there shall not be in any State any federal officers with ordinary jurisdiction or authority in time of peace.
§ 1. The Agents of the Government of the Union in fiscal affairs or in military or other matters shall ordinarily exercise their functions under the inspection of the proper authorities of the States, according to their rank.
§ 2. The Baid authorities are likewise federal authorities iu all matters requiring command or jurisdiction, and they must, therefore, fulfil, under strict responsibility, to be exacted of them by the High Federal Powers, according to this Constitution and the laws, the duties imposed on them by the said authorities according to their powers.
XXI. The judicial power of the States is independent. All suits initiated within them, according to their Hpecial legislation . and in matters of their exclusive jurisdiction, shall be decided in the States, without subjection to the examination of auy other authority..
§ The indemnifications which the Union may grant for acta., committed by the functionaries of the States in violation of the civil rights guaranteed by Article XV, shall be charged to the respective State, which shall be responsible to the Federal Treasury for the pecuniary amount of the indemnity granted.
XXII. The members of the State Legislatures shall enjoy immunity during the period that their respective Constitutions may determine, and they shall at no time be responsible for the votes or opinions they may give in the exercise of their functions.
XXIII. In order to maintain the national sovereignty and preserve the public peace and security, the National Government and the Governments of the States, as the case may be, shall exercise the right of supreme inspection over religious worship in the manner prescribed by law.
§ For the maintenance of the forms of worship established, or which may be hereafter established, in The United States, no contributions shall be imposed. Every form of worship shall be maintained by the voluntary contributions of its members.
XXIV. No legislative enactment either of the General Government or of the States shall have a retroactive effect, excepting in penal matters when an ex post facto law imposes a minor penalty.
XXV. Any act of the National Congress or of the Executive Power of The United States violatiug the civil rights guaranteed by Article XV, or attacking the sovereignty of the States, may be annulled by the vote of the States expressed by the majority of their respective legislatures.
XXVI. The public force of The United States is divided into naval and land forces, at the charge of the Union, and it shall likewise be composed of the national militia, which the States may organize according to their own laws.
§ 1. The forces of the Union shall consist of volunteers, or of a contingent to be proportionately given by each State, calling out those citizens liable to serve according to the laws of the State.
§ 2. In case of war the contingent may be augmented by bodies of the national militia up to the number of men necessary for completing the force required by the General Government.
XXVII. The General Government cannot change the commanders of the corps furnished by the States, excepting in the caseB and with the formalities established by law.
Chap. III.—Property and Obligations of the Union.
XXVIII. The United States of Columbia acknowledge the domestic and foreign debts recognized by the Governments of the late Granadian Confederation and of the United States of New Granada, in the proportion corresponding to the population and wealth of the States which unite by the present constitution or that