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who has the right to return the project to the Chamber in which it originated, in order to its being reconsidered, accompanying it with the observations which induce him to return it.
L VII. Should the project of law be returned as unconstitutional or inexpedient altogether, and one of the Chambers declares the observations made by the President to be well founded, then the project shall be thrown out, and shall not be taken into consideration again during the same session.
§. Should both Chambers declare the observations to be unfounded, the project of law shall be returned to the President of the Union, who in such case cannot withhold his sanction.
LVIII. If the President of the Union confines his observations to only one or more of the provisions of the project of law, and both Chambers declare them to be well-founded wholly or partly, then it shall be re-considered, and the necessary modifications of tho portion or portions to which the remarks refer shall be made.
§ 1. Should the modifications adopted be in accordance with the proposal made by the President of the Union, he cannot refuse his sanction to the project of law; but if they are not so, or any new provisions are introduced, or any are suppressed which were not objected to, the President may make fresh observations ou the project.
§ 2. Should one of the Chambers declare the observations to be unfounded, and the other the contrary, the project shall be thrown out.
§ 3. In all cases in which both Chambers declare the observations to be unfounded, it is the duty of the President to sanction the project of law.
§ 4. When, on considering the observations made by the President, new provisions are introduced, they need only go through two readings, on different days, in each Chamber.
LIX. The President of the Union is allowed the period of 6 days for returning any project with his observations, when the project does not consist of more than 00 articles; if beyond that number, the period shall be 10 days.
§. Every project not returned within the period specified must be sanctioned; but if the Congress should go into recess during the period allowed the President for returning the project, he must either sanction or object thereto within the 10 days immediately following that on which the Congress went into recess, and moreover he must publish the result through the medium of the press.
LI. Every legislative project which, on the Chambers going into recess, remains pending, shall be considered as a new project when discussed in the following session.
LXI. Iu the laws and legislative decrees the following formula shall be used:
The Congress of the United States of Columbia Decrees:
LXII. Each Chamber has the exclusive power of appointing its own officers and of making the regulations it may think fit for the direction and performance of its functions and for the internal police of the building in which its sittings are held. In these regulations correctional penalties may be established for any transgressions committed by members, and for offences by other individuals against the Chamber, or against the immunity of its members.
EXIII. Each Chamber is competent to decide upon the questions which arise relative to the qualification of its members, when for any State a greater number of Senators or Representatives present themselves than that State is entitled to, and nil are provided with credentials in due form.
Chap. VII.—Executive Power.
LXIV. The Executive Power of the Union shall be exercised by a magistrate to be denominated President of the United States of Columbia, who shall begin to exercise his functions on the 1st of April immediately following his election.
LXV. In case of the absolute or temporary inability of the President of the Union, that title shall be assumed and the Executive Power shall be exercised by one of the three Designates, who are elected annually by absolute majority of the Congress, and ■whose order of substitution is then determined.
§ 1. But if from any cause the Congress should not have elected the Designates, or if none of them should be in the capital of the Union, or should not from any other cause be able to take charge of the Executive Power, then the Attorney-General shall temporarily assume the office, and in his default one of the Presidents, Governors or superior officers of the StateB, popularly elected, and in the order of substitution determined each year by the Congress.
§ 2. The law shall determine when a new election for President is to take place in cases of absolute vacancy.
§ 3. The period of duration for the exercise of the Executive Power by the Designates shall be one year, reckoned from the 1st of April following their election.
§ 4. If the meeting of Congress cannot take place at the time appointed, or should the election of the Designates have been omitted, their period of duration shall continue until the meeting may take place, and a new designation be made.
LXVI. The attributions of the President of the Union ore:
1st. To adopt the necessary measures for the complete execution of the laws.
2nd. To watch over the punctual and faithful collection of the national revenues.
3rd. To negotiate and conclude Treaties and Conventions, to ratify and exchange the same after their approval by Congress, and to see to their punctual observance.
4th. To enter into all kinds of agreements or contracts relating to the matters within the competence of the Government of the Union, submitting them to the approval of the Congress in order that they may be carried into effect, excepting when the stipulations they contain have been previously sanctioned by law.
5th. To declare war when the Congress shall have decreed it, and to conduct the defence of the country in case of foreign invasion, with power to call the militia of the States into active service, if necessary.
6th. To conduct the operations of the war as Commander-inchief of the army and navy of the Union.
7th. To appoint to the public offices of the Union such persona as are to fill them, when the Constitution or the laws do not give the appointment to another authority.
8th. To remove from their offices all persons whose appointment belongs to him.
9th. To present to the Chamber of Representatives on the first day of its annual session, the estimates of the revenue and expenses of the Union, and the general account of the estimates and of the treasury.
10th. To cause justice to be duly and speedily administered, instituting through the medium of the Public Ministry the trial of all delinquents, and the dispatch of civil suits in the tribunals and courts of the Eepublic.
11th. To prevent any armed aggression of one State of the Union upon another, or upon a foreign nation.
12th. To see that the Congress meets on the day appointed by the Constitution, taking timely measures in order that the Senators and Representatives receive the aids appointed by law for their journey.
13th. To grant patents guaranteeing for a fixed period the property of literary works, and of useful inventions applicable to new industrial operations, or to the perfection of existing ones.
14th. To appoint, with the approbation of the Senate, the Secretaries of State, the superior officers of the different administrative departments, the diplomatic agonts, and the military officers whoso appointment belongs to him.
15th. To grant letters of naturalization agreeably to law.
lGih. To issue letters of marque and of navigation.
17th. To present to Congress at the beginning of its ordinary sessions, a written report on the course of the affairs of the Union during the last period and their actual situation, accompanying it with the reports of the Secretaries of State.
18th. To furnish the Chambers with such special reports as they may require, provided they do not relate to diplomatic affairs which in the opinion of the Executive, require secrecy.
19th. To watch over the preservation of general order; and
20th. To exercise all other functions that may be assigned to him by the Constitution and the laws.
LXVII. When the President personally directs military operations beyond the capital of the Union, the respective Designate shall take charge of the Executive Power in the remaining branches of the administration.
LXVIII. For the dispatch of the affairs within the competence of the Executive Power of the Union, the President shall have such Secretaries of State as the law may determine. All acts of the President, with the exception of the decrees appointing or removing the Secretaries of State, shall be authorized by one of those Secretaries, without which they shall not be obeyed.
Chap. VIII.—Judicial Power.
LX1X. The judicial power is exercised by the Senate, by a Supreme Federal Court, by the tribunals and courts of the States, and also by those which may be established in the territories that are to be governed by special legislation.
§ The trials for military crimes and offences among the forces of the Union, are within the competence of the national judicial power.
LXX. The Supreme Federal Court shall be composed of 5 judges, and there shall not be at the same time more than one judge who is a citizen, native, or inhabitant of the same State.
LXXI. The attributions of the Supreme Federal Court, are:
1st. To take cognizance of all actions, against the President of the Union aud the Secretaries of State for ordinary offences their suspension from office having been previously declared by the Senate, after it shall have decided that there is just cause for instituting proceedings.
2nd. To take cognizance of all actions against the AttorneyGeneral of the Nation, the Judges of the Supreme Court, and the Public Ministers of the nation at foreign courts for ordinary offences
3rd. To take cognizaiK-e of all actions for responsibility inclin ed by the Diplomatic and Consular Officers of the Union by the ill discharge of their respective duties.
4tb. To take cognizance of all actions for responsibility against the Governors, Presidents, Superior Officers and the Judges of the superior tribunals of the States, for infraction of the Constitution and laws of the Union.
5th. To take cognizance of all actions for responsibility incurred by generals and commanders-in-chief of the national forces, and against the superior officers of the principal offices of the Treasury department of the Union.
Oth. To decide upon all questions arising between the States themselves, or between one or more States and the General Government of the Union, about competence of powers, property, limits, and all other disputed matters.
7th. To take cognizance of all disputed matters relating to maritime prizes, the contravention by national or foreign vessels of legal enactments regarding the foreign or the coasting trade, or of the formalities to be observed in the national ports, or concerning the regulations relating to maritime navigation, and to the navigation of such rivers as water the territory of more than one State, or pass on to that of a neighbouring nation.
8th. To take cognizance of all controversies which may arise regarding the contracts or agreements which the Government of the Union may enter into with the States or with private individuals; and in last resort, of all questions in which the stipulations of public Treaties have to be applied.
9th. To take cognizance of the controversies that arise relative to inter-oceanic communications through the territory of the Union, and the security of transit by the same.
10th. To take cognizance of all disputes arising relative to the property or revenue of the Union.
11th. To adjust any competition that may arise between the tribunals and courts of different States, between the tribunals and courts of one or more States and the tribunals of the Union, or between two or more of the latter tribunals.
12th. To appoint the subaltern officers of the court itself, and remove them at pleasure.
13th. To give all the information which the Legislative Chambers, the President of the Union, or the Attorney-General may require from it, relative to the matters of which it takes cognizance.
14th. To declare what Acts of the National Congress, or of the Executive Power of the Union have been annulled by a majority of the State legislatures; and
15th. To exercise whatever other functions the law may determine respecting the matters within the competence of the General Government.
LXXII. The Supremo Court has the power of suspending by a