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unanimous vote, on the demand of the Attorney-General or of any citizen, the execution of the Legislative Acts of the State Assemblies, in so far as such Acts may be contrary to the Constitution or the laws of the Union, reporting in all cases to the Senate, in order that that body may definitively decide upon the validity or nullity of the said Acts.
Chap. IX.—Public Ministry.
LXXIII. The duties of the Public Ministry are performed by the Chamber of Representatives, by a functionary denominated "Attorney-General of the Nation," and by such other functionaries as the law may determine.
LXXIV. The attributions of the Public Ministry are:
1st. To see that all the public functionaries in the service of the Union punctually fulfil their duties.
2nd. To accuse before the Senate or the Supreme Federal Court all public functionaries under the jurisdiction of those corporations; and,
3rd. To discharge whatever other functions the law may assign to it.
LXXV. The election of the President of the Union is to bo made by the vote of the States, each State having one vote, which shall be that of the relative majority of its respective electors according to its own legislation. The Congress shall declare ns elected President, the citizen who may have obtained the absolute majority of the votes of the States. Should no one have obtaiurd that majority, the Congress shall make the election from among the persons who may have obtained the largest number of votes.
§. The citizen who may have exercised the Presidency cannot be re-elected for the ensuing Presidential period.
LXXVI. The election of Judges of the Supreme Federal Court shall be made in the following manner:
The Legislature of each State shall send to the Congress a list of persons equal in number to the vacancies to be filled, and the Congress shall declare as elected the 5 who have the largest number of votes, and who fulfil the conditions laid down in Articlo LXX. All cases of equal numbers shall be decided by lot.
Chap. XI.—Sundry Enactments.
LXXVII. The High Federal Powers shall reside in such place or places as the law shall determine.
LXXVIII. The territories thinly populated or inhabited by tribes of aborigines which the State or States to which tbey btljug may cede to the general Government, for the purpose of promotic ir colonization, or for making material improvements, shall be governed by a special law.
§. As soon as a territory contains a civilized population amounting to 3,000 inhabitants, it shall send a commissioner to the Chamber of Representatives, who shall have vote and voice in the discussion of all laws relating to the territories, aud voice but no vote iu the laws of general interest. When the number of civilized inhabitants reaches 20,000, the territory shall send, in lieu of the commissioner, a Deputy with voice and vote in all discussions; and for more than 50,000 inhabitants, it shall send the number of Deputies to which it may be entitled agreeably to Article XXXVIII of this Constitution.
LXXIX. The period of office of the President of the United States, and of the Senators and Eepresentatives, shall be two years.
LXXX. The period of office of the Judges of the Supreme Federal Court shall be four years; and that of the AttorneyGeneral two years.
LXXXI. The President of the Union, his Secretaries of State, the Attorney-General and the Judges of the Supreme Federal Court, can none of them be elected Senators or Eepresentatives.
LXXXII. The persons iu the public service who are removable by the President of the Union lose their situations by accepting the office of Senator or Representative.
LXXXIII. The persons in the public service who are removable by the President of the Union likewise vacate their places two months after the elected takes possession of office, agreeably to thia Constitution.
LXXXIV. No tax, contribution, or national impost shall be levied which is not expressly included in the estimates which Congress is to issue annually.
LXXXV. No disbursement shall be made out of the National Treasury of any sum not expressly voted by Congress, nor to a larger amount than that specified.
LXXXVI. Tho salary of the President of the Union, of the Senators and Eepresentatives, of the Attorney-General of the Nation, aud of the Judges of the Supreme Federal Court, cannot be augmented or diminished during the period for which the persons may have been elected who fill those offices at the time when any augmentation or diminution may be made.
LXXXVII. The Judges of the Supreme Federal Court, and the Judges of the other national tribunals and courts cannot be suspended except by virtue of an accusation legally made and admitted, nor deprived except in consequence of a judicial sentence given according to the laws.
LXXXVIII. All Columbians are- prohibited from accepting any office, insignia, title, or salary from foreign Governments without the permission of Congress. "Whoever contravenes the tenor of this Article shall forfeit the character of Columbian citizen.
LXXXIX. All public functionaries and corporations are prohibited from exercising any function or authority not expressly conferred upon them.
XC. The Executive Government will initiate negotiations with the Governments of Venezuela and Equator for the voluntary union of the 3 sections of ancient Columbia in a common nationality, under the republican, democratic, and federal form, analogous to that established by the present Constitution, and to be specified in due time by a general constituent Assembly.
XCI. The law of nations forms part of the national legislation. Its provisions shall especially rule in cases of civil war; consequently, such wars may be terminated by means of Treaties between the belligerents, who must observe the humane practices of Christian and civilized nations.
XCII. The present Constitution may be totally or partially reformed with the following formalities:
1st. That the reform be solicited by a majority of the State Legislatures.
2nd. That the reform be discussed and approved in both Chambers, in accordance with the rules established for the enactment of laws; and,
3rd. That the reform be ratified by the unanimous vote of the Senate of Plenipotentiaries, each State having a vote.
It may likewise be reformed by a Convention convoked by Congress for that purpose, at the request of all the State Legislatures, and composed of an equal number of Deputies for each State.
XCIII. The present Constitution shall come into force from the date of its official publication, if it obtains the unanimous ratification of the Deputies of the States assembled in this Convention, as representatives of the sovereignty of the States. Should the deputation from any State refuse to ratify it, the Constitution shall not be binding upon the State that it represents; and that State shall definitively make known its will through its Legislative Assembly.
§. Should the said Assembly come to no resolution on the subject during its next session, or should it not meet within 3 months [1862-03. J.m.] X
after the present Constitution shall have been received in the capital of the State, it shall be considered as accepted in the same manner as it has been by the other States.
Given at Eio Negro, this 8th day of May, 1863.
The President, Deputy for the Sovereign State of
Panama, JUSTO AEOSEMENA. The Vice-President, Deputy for the Sovereign State
ofdauoa, JULIAN TBUJILLO. ["Here follow the signatures of Deputies from 62 States and
Tbansitoby Constitutional Act.—Bio Negro, May 8,1863. (Translation.)
THE NATIONAL CONVENTION, In the name and by the authority of the people and of the United States of Columbia which it represents, has agreed to decree the following Transitory Constitutional Act.
Aet. I. The popular elections for President, Senators, and Eepresentatives, shall take place in the present year, in order that the first Constitutional Congress may be installed on the 1st of February, 1864, before which Congress the new President shall assume office on the 1st of April.
II. The General Government shall continue its relations with friendly nations by means of those diplomatic agents who present new credentials, and it shall furnish the same to the agents of the Eepublic abroad, after the sanctioning of the Constitution, and with the consent of the Convention.
III. The first constitutional President of the United States of Columbia shall be elected by the Convention, and hold office until the 1st of April, 1804, when the President to be elected in conformity with Article LXXV of the Constitution, is to take office.
IV. The Supreme Federal Court, composed of the 3 judges now in office, and also the Attorney-General, shall continue in the exercise of their functions until the 1st of April next, when the new functionaries to be elected according to the Constitution take office.
V. The Convention shall exercise during the present session all the functions which, by the Constitution, appertain to the Congress and to eaoh of the Chambers thereof.
VI. The Legislatures of the States shall vote va the present year, at their first meeting, for Judges of the Supremo Federal Court, so that the next Congress may enter into the scrutiny and dcelaro tho election. The citizens elected shall take office on the 1st of April, 1804.
VII. The territory which has hitherto served as federal district shall be governed in the manner its municipality may determine, until the Assembly of the Sovereign State of Cundinamarca shul I legally incorporate it into that State. The Supreme Court ahall take cognizance of all appeals which may have been granted by the judges of the federal district, until such incorporation takes place.
VIII. The compact of union of the 20th of September, 1861, ia hereby abrogated.
Given at Bio Negro, this 8th day of May, 1863.
The President, Deputy for the Sovereign State of
Panama, JUSTO AROSEMENA. The Vice-President, Deputy for the Sovereign State
ofCauca, JULIAN TBUJILLO [Here follow the signatures of the Deputies from the various States and Districts; and Acts of Eatiflcation.]
TREATY of Recognition, Peace, and Friendship between the Argentine Republic and Spain.—Signed at Madrid, September 21, 1863.
His Excellency the President of the Argentine Eepublic, on the one part, and Her Majesty the Queen of Spain, on the other, animated by the desire of removing the difficulties which have arisen in the execution of Article VII of the Treaty of Recognition, Peace, and Friendship, concluded at Madrid on tho 9th of July, 1859,* and taking into account that tho re-establishment of Argentine unity, happily effected by virtue of the reincorporation of tho province of Buenos Ayres, renders necessary the modification of the Bame Article, have named as their Plenipotentiaries, to wit: His Excellency the President of the Argentine Bepublic, Don Mariano Balcarce, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to the Courts of Paris, London, and Turin, appointed in the same character to that of Madrid, Ac, and Her Catholic Majesty, Don Manuel Pando Fernandez de Pinedo, A lava y Davila, Marquis of Miraflores, &c., Grandee of Spain of the first class, Knight of ttt distinguished Order of the Golden Fleece, Grand Cross of the Boyal and distinguished Order of Charles III, Grand Cordon of the Legion of Honour of France, and of that of Leopold of Belgium, Grand Cross of the Order of Pius IX of the Pontifical States, of that of Christ of Portugal, Senator of the Kingdom, formerly Her Ambassador, President of Her Council of Ministers, and Her Principal Secretary of State, and for affairs, <fec, who, after having conimuni* Tol. L. Page 1190.