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the Article aforesaid, may be exercised also within 30 leagues of the island of Madagascar, within 30 leagues of the island of Puerto Eico, and within 30 leagues of the islaud of San Domingo.

The present Additional Article shall have the same force and validity as if it had been inserted word for word in the Treaty concluded between the two High Contracting Parties on the 7th of April, 1862, and shall have the same duration as that Treaty. It shall be ratified, and the ratifications shall be exchanged at London in 6 months from this date, or sooner if possible.

In witness whereof the respective Plenipotentiaries have signed the same, and have thereunto affixed the seal of their arms.

Done at Washington, the 17th day of February, in the year of our Lord 1863.



CORRESPONDENCE relative to the relations between Great Britain and Abyssinia, and the Appointment of a British Consul {Captain Cameron) .*—1861—1863.

No. I. Earl Russell to Consul Cameron. Sih, Foreign Office, February 2, 18G1.

Toub first duty in arriving in Massowah, which you will consider as the head-quarters of your Consulate, will be to make yourself acquainted with the general state of political affairs in Abyssinia.

Her Majesty's Government are so imperfectly informed in regard to what may have happened in that country since the death of your predecessor, that I am unable to lay down any very precise rules for the guidance of your conduct.

The civil war which prevailed at that time may have been brought to a conclusion decidedly favourable to one or other of the contending parties, or it may still prevail with the alternate success of either.

It seems to Her Majesty's Government undesirable that you should avow yourself the partizan of either of the contending parties if the contest is still going on. Whatever interest Her Majesty's Government may have in Abyssinia can best be advanced by the tranquillity of the country; but if the British Agent becomes the partizan of one side, the rivalry of European interests, which, however disavowed by the Governments of Europe, is almost invariably * Laid before Parliament, 1805, 1866.

found to exist on the part of their Agents in such countries as Abyssinia, will stimulate foreign Agents to declare a partizanship for the other, and thus a civil contest will be promoted and encouraged, which would otherwise die out of itself, or very shortly be brought to a conclusion by the decided preponderance of a victorious party.

The principles, therefore, on which you should act, are—abstinence from any course of proceeding to which a preference for either party should be imputable to you; abstinence from all intrigues to set up an exclusive British influence in Abyssinia; and, lastly, the promotion of amicable arrangements between the rival candidates for power.

Her Majesty's Government are aware that religious rivalry has contributed its share to promote dissension in Abyssinia, but such rivalry should receive no countenance from a British Agent; on the contrary, his study should be to extend as far as possible general toleration of all Christian sects, as being most consistent with the doctrines of Christianity and with sound policy. The British Government claim no authority to set up or advocate in a foreign country one sect of Christianity in preference to another; all that they would urge upon the rulers of any such country is, to show equal favour and toleration to the professors of all Christian sects.

But although it is not desirable that you should engage in a contest with the Agent of any other Power for superiority of influence, or that you should openly exhibit suspicion or jealousy of his proceedings, or of the influence which he may be supposed to have acquired, it will be your duty closely to watch any proceedings which may tend to alter the state of possession either on the seacoast or in the interior of the country, and you will keep her Majesty's Government at home, and Her Majesty's Governor-General of India, fully informed of all matters of interest which may come under your observation, sending your despatches under flying seal in the oue case through Her Majesty's Agent and Consul-General in Egypt, and in the other through the Political Agent at Aden.

In addition to matters of a political or commercial nature, you will pay particular attention to any traffic in slaves which may be carried on within your district, and report fully upon the same; and you will further avail yourself of any suitable opportunity to impress upon any native rulers who may directly or indirectly encourage or permit such a traffic the abhorrence in which it is held by the British Government, and the dislike with which any parties who may have recourse to it are likely to be regarded in this country.

I am, &c.

C. D. Cameron, Esq. RUSSELL.

No. 2.—Earl Russell to Consul Cameron. Sib, Foreign Office, November 13, 1861.

The Queen having learnt that the King of Abyssinia paid a ransom for the late Mr. Consul Plowden, and Her Majesty being desirous of making some acknowledgment for the kindness shown by the King to one of her officers, she has directed that a suitable present should be sent through you to the King; and I thereforo transmit to you a rifle and a pair of revolver pistols, which you will deliver to the King as soon after your arrival in Abyssinia as you have an opportunity of doing so. I am, &o.

C. D. Cameron, Esq. RUSSELL.

No. 3.—Earl Russell to Consul Cameron. 8rn, Foreign Office, February 22, 1862.

"with reference to my despatch of the 13th of November last, transmitting some articles as presents from the Queen to King Theodore of Abyssinia, as an acknowledgment of his kindness in ransoming the remains of the late Mr. Plowden, I have to acquaint you that it has since appeared to me to be desirable that I should address a letter to King Theodore in Her Majesty's name to accompany the presents, and at the same time to announce your appointment, and introduce you to the King.

I accordingly inclose a letter which 1 have written to King Theodore, and which you will deliver to him, accompanied by suitable expressions of friendship on the part of Her Majesty's Government. If the presents should have been given to him before you receive this despatch, you will still deliver my letter, and make the best explanation in your power of its not having arrived sooner.

1 am, &c.

C. D. Cameron, Esq. EUSSELL.

(Inclosure.)Earl Russell to King Theodore of Abyssinia. Sib, Foreign Office, February 20, 1862.

The Queen my Sovereign has been informed by her servants in the East of the exertions which your Highness kindly made to recover the remains of her late Consul, Mr. Plowden, and of your generosity in declining to accept repayment of the sum of money which you paid for that purpose. Her Majesty commands me to assure your Highness that she views your conduct in regard to this affair as a proof of friendship towards herself and the British nation, of which she is duly sensible.

In order more particularly to manifest Her Majesty's thankfulness for these your Highness's services, and to show her regard and friendship for you personally, Her Majesty requests your acceptance of a rifle and a pair of revolver pistols as a present from herself. Her Majesty has intrusted these articles to Captain Charles Duncan Cameron, whom she has appointed her Consul in Abyssinia, as the successor of the late Mr. Plowden, and who has lately taken his departure for his post, and I take this opportunity of introducing him to your Highness, and of requesting your protection and favour in his behalf. He is well acquainted with all that concerns the interests of both countries, and will, I am confident, do all in his power to make himself acceptable to your Highness and to promote your welfare.

I thank your Highness for the letter which you addressed to me, informing me of the steps which you had taken to punish the men who murdered Mr. Plowden and Mr. Bell; and with my best wishes for your uninterrupted health and happiness, I recommend you to the protection of the Almighty.

Your faithful friend, (L.S.) The large signet. KUSSELL.

No. 4.—Consul Cameron to Earl Russell.(Bee. February 12,1863.) Mr Lobd, Qodjam, Abyssinia, October 31, 1862.

I Hate the honour to report that King Theodore having sent for me at the close of the rainy season, I joined him at his camp here on the 7th instant.

I was received with a salute of 12 guns, and 6,000 cavalry, infantry, and matchlock men were marched out to escort me to camp.

My reception, as regards this point, was the best His Majesty has yet accorded to an Envoy.

On my arrival I was conducted to the King, who awaited me in a large apartment, entirely covered and carpeted with silk.

He received me in a reclining posture, with a double-barrelled gun and two loaded pistols by his side. His Ministers and Generals stood round in their robes of State. I was allowed to be seated.

After a few compliments, mead and broiled meat were brought in, and the interview became public. It lasted many hours, during which His Majesty gave me a detailed aocount of his last campaign against Negusi. This he did with much apparent modesty. He dwelt with graphic clearness on the death-scene of his late Grand Chamberlain, the Englishman Bell, in which our countryman singled out the Chief Garratt, to whom Mr. Plowden owed his death, and killed him on the battle-field, while the King similarly dispatched the same rebel's brother.

Both the slain were His Majesty's cousins.

He spoke of his further revenge for Mr. Plowden's death when. he executed 1,500 of Garrett's followers on the same day. He did this, he said, to win the friendship of Her Majesty.


He afterwards broke out into invectives against the Turks, said they were encroaching on him on every side, spoke of the 7 flags, as he expressed it, that they hud planted on the sea-coast, and dwelt much upon alleged advances from the Egyptian quarter.

He announced his intention of fighting with them, and sending Ambassadors to the European nations to justify his conduet.

Two days alter this interview I received a message from His Majesty directing me to put down my business with him on paper.

I wrote immediately, stating that I was deputed to present him with certain gifts, and a letter of introduction; also to discuss with him regarding the future. That when Mr. Plowden was killed there were two points under discussion, viz., 1st, a Treaty; 2nd, the sendiug an Embassy to England. I offered to take these up where Mr. Plowden had left them.

I was sent for next day to deliver my presents and your Lordship's letter.

Both gave much pleasure, especially the inscription on the gun, to the effect that it was given by Her Majesty in return for the King's kindness to Mr. Plowden.

The King spoke much this day of his goodwill towards England, and the great things ho expected from her friendship; and said that he was anxious to purchase fire-arms and ammunition there.

He renewed his invectives against the Turks, and talked of what he could do if assured of our support on the coast.

My replies were as general as possible, as the room was crowded with courtiers, before whom I was unwilling to deal quite plainly with His Majesty.

His Majesty on this occasion presented me with a buckler, two lances, a war saddle, armlet, horse and mule, which I accepted in the name of the Queen, presenting on my own account a barrelorgan, some powder, and three double-barrelled horse pistols, the latter being preferred by His Majesty to revolvers.

On the following Sunday I was again sent for, and to a public interview.

The tone of the King had become bolder regarding Turkey. He spoke of the poverty of his country, saying, that by invading Egypt he would be greatly enriched, and vaunted more boastfully than before of the achievements he would perform if England would prevent any interference by France on the sea-coast, and keep oir a Turkish fleet.

Feeling convinced that, however strong may be the wish of England to befriend Abyssinia, this was not the temper 1 was sent to encourage, I waited till an opportunity ah = Tit of correct

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