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pour nssurer l'inviolabilité de la frontière commune et mettre obstacle à toute contrebande de guerre. Mais une opération, même limitée, que ne justifiait d'ailleurs aucun symptôme menaçant dans les provinces Polonaises de la Monarchie Prussienne, dépasse les obligations tracées au Cabinet de Berlin par le droit public; ello semble procéder de la pensée préconçue d'une solidarité politique que les Traités Européens n'ont pas établie en réglant le sort de la Pologne et dont les intérêts généraux pourraient avoir à souffrir.

Aussi l'opinion publique s'en est elle vivement émue, et l'inquiétude qu'elle en a ressentie n'aura point échappé au Gouvernement de Sa Majesté le Roi de Prusse.

Le Gouvernement de Sa Majesté l'Empereur des Français considère de -son côté, comme un devoir envers lui-même et envers l'Europe de signaler à la Cour de Berlin les préoccupations causées par les arrangements qu'elle a conclus avec le Cabinet de St. Pétersbourg, et il aime à croire que ces observations, inspirées par le désir sincère d'écarter tout sujet de malentendu, seront accueillies avec le même sentiment de confiance bienveillante qui les a dictées.

Le Soussigné, &c.

N~o. 61.—F.arl Russell to Earl Cowley. Mr Loud, Foreign Office, March 2, 1863.

Hee Majesty's Government have received from Baron Gros a project of note to be addressed by the French Ambassador at Berlin to the Prussian Government, with reference to the Convention in regard to Poland lately entered into between Prussia and Eussia.

I had already prepared a despatch to Her Majesty's Ambassador at Berlin, which embodies the same views of the Convention between Eussia and Prussia as those contained in M. Drouyn de Llmys' note; and I have now to instruct your Excellency to communicate to M. Drouyn de Lhuys a copy of that despatch, which was transmitted to you in my despatch of the 28th ultimo.

Her Majesty's Government are happy to find that so great a conformity prevails between the views of the Governments of England and France on the subject.

I also inclose a copy of a despatch which I have addressed to Her Majesty's Ambassador at St. Petersburgh, wliich your Excellency will likewise communicate to M. Drouyn dc Lhys.

Her Majesty's Government would be glad to find that the Imperial Government had written in a similar sense to the French Ambassador at St. Petersburgh. I am, &c.

Earl Cowley. ETTSSELL.


Wo. G5.—Earl Cowley to Earl Russell.(Received March 4.) (Extract.) Paris, March 3, 1863.

M. Deoutjt De Lutjts, although very unwell, was good enough to see me this afternoon, and I communicated to Ids Excellency your Lordship's despatch of yesterday's date, together with the instructions which your Lordship ha3 addressed to Her Majesty's Ambassadors at Berlin and St. Petersburgh with reference to the act lately signed at St. Petersburgh, and to the general state of the Polish question.

On inquiring whether his Excellency would send a despatch to St. Petersburgh in a sense similar to that adopted by your Lordship, he replied that he had already written to the Due de Montebello his opinion of the Convention, and of the state of affairs in Poland, but he had made no reference to the Treaties of 1815. Earl Russell. COWLEY.

Wo. 66.—Earl Cowley to Earl Russell.(Received March 4.) Mr Loed, Paris, March 3, 1863.

M. Dbouyn De Lhuys expresses himself to be satisfied with the reply of the Austrian Government to the proposal that Austria should join England and France in addressing a note to the Cabinet of Berlin on the subject of the Itusso-Prussian Convention. He seemed to admit the impossibility of the Austrian Government nowblaming an act in which they had been asked to participate, but which they had not blamed when they declined to take part in it.

I have, &c.

Earl Russell. COWLEY.

No. 67.Earl Russell to Lord Bloomficld * My Lord, Foreign Office, March 4, 1863.

Her Majesty's Government being deeply affected by the deplorable acts of violence of which Poland is now the scene, and having reflected on the causes of these calamities, have addressed the accompanying despatch to Her Majesty's Ambassador at St. Petersburgh.

You are instructed to read this despatch and its inclosure to the Minister of Foreign Affairs at Vienna.

You will state at the same time that, in the opinion of Her Majesty's Government, a communication of similar views by the Ecpresentatives at St. Petersburgh of the Powers who were parties to the Treaty of June, 1815, would tend to the cessation of bloodshed, and to the enjoyment by the people of Poland of those rights which

* Similar despatches were addressed to Sir A. Buchanan, Sir J. Hudson, Sir J. Crampton, Sir A. Magenis, Mr. Jerningham, and Mr. Lytton.

were promised to them at Vienna, and which have heen so long withheld from them.

The peace of Europe would, in the opinion of Her Majesty's Government, be best assured by restoring to the Poles the privileges of a National Diet and a National Administration; and Her Majesty's Government, therefore, hope that the Austrian Government will concur in making to the Government of Russia a representation which has for its objects the interests of humanity and security of the peace of Europe, and which cannot give any just offence to the Russian Government. I am, &c.

Lord Bloomfield. RUSSELL.

No. GS.—Uarl Russell to Earl Cowley. (Extract.) Foreign Office, March 5, 1863.

Although Baron Gros stated to me on the 24th ultimo the substance of the despatch which I now send you, lie did not give me a copy of it till the 2nd instant.

But there remain some facts and some remarks relating to the conduct of Austria which I have not yet communicated.

Before Her Majesty's Government had had any time to consider the French proposal of the 21st of February, and indeed almost at the same time that it arrived in this country, I received an intimation from Count Appotiyi that his Government desired that no proposition of concert on Polish affairs should be made to them by France and Great Britain.

Her Majesty's Government, therefore, came to the consideration of the subject, impressed with the conviction that Austria would not join in the proposed identic note. Her Majesty's Government thought also that, seeing her reluctance, it would be very unwise to urge her to a course she was unwilling to adopt.

Our impressions on this subject have been confirmed by a despatch from Count Rechberg to Prince Metternich, which Count Apponyi read to mo yesterday.

It is an answer to the French proposal. Mingled with some scruples against the principle of non-intervention, which belong to the traditional policy of Austria, are considerations which flow naturally from the position of Austria. The Cabinet of Vienna does not like to give even an appearance of encouragement to Polish insurrection, lest the lesson should cross the frontier, and the example be repeated in Galicia. The freedom of France and England from apprehensions of this kind is dwelt upon with marked distinctness.

The inference to be drawn from this desnatch is rather that Austria does not see her way clearly ir ^ '"ted out to her by the French Government, than thnt she is altogether averse to the policy of which an outline is presented to her.


Possibly, and indeed probably, the line to be adopted by the Emperor of Austria will draw gradually nearer to that of England and France.

"With respect to the Prusso-Bussian Convention, its importance appears to bo gradually diminishing. Count Bismarck, in reading it to Sir Andrew Buchanan, pointed out that no Eussian troops could pursue insurgents across the Prussian frontier without the special permission or invitation of a Prussian officer. It is, of course, in the power of the Prussian Government to instruct its officers not to give that permission or invitation.

Prince Gortchakoff, on his side, declares to Lord Napier that the chief motive for agreeing to the Convention was that insurgents often cross the frontier to seize a Custom-House and carry off the money found in its chest. In such cases it may be convenient to call upon an armed body from the other side to retake the CustomHouse and recapture the treasure.

"While the two Contracting Powers are thus endeavouring to diminish the gravity and scope of the Convention, the events of the insurrection seem to be carrying the war away from the Prussian and nearer to the Austrian frontier.

It appears, therefore, to Her Majesty's Government, that as the Convention is falling quietly into insignificance, and in fact sinking to nothing, it is fortunate that the Governments of France and England have not roused in the Prussian Government a spirit of offended dignity, and thus created obstacles to their own success by presenting formally an identic note requiring a formal reply.

Her Majesty's Government are of opinion that the nest step to be taken is to invite all the chief Powers who signed the Treaty of Vienna to concur in advising Eussia to recur to the stipulations, and to revert to the policy of the Treaty of Vienna in regard to Poland.

A copy of a communication intended for this purpose is inclosed in the present despatch.

Earl Cowley. EUSSELL.

No. 69.—Earl Russell to Sir A. Buchanan. Sib, Foreign Office, March 6, 1868.

I Hate received and laid before the Queen your Excellency's despatch of the 27th ultimo, reporting the language of M. de Bismarck with regard to the Convention on Polish affairs between Prussia and Eussia.

Her Majesty's Government wish to know whether they are to conclude that the Convention will not be ratified.

"Why should not the Prussian Government drop an agreement for which no necessity appears to exist, and which will he considered throughout Europe as a mark of subserviency to Russia.

I am, &c.

Sir A. Buchanan. ETJSSELL.

No. 72.—Earl Cowley to Earl Russell.(Received March 6.) Ml Loed, Paris, March 4, 1863.

M. Dkoutn De Lnr/rs having requested to see me, I waited upon his Excellency this afternoon.

He said that he had communicated to the Emperor the papers of which, by your Lordship's directions, I had left copies with him yesterday, and that he had received His Majesty's orders to state that, while regretting that the identic note which His Majesty had desired that the Representatives of the two Governments should have presented at Berlin had not been agreed to by Her Majesty's Government, His Majesty recognized with satisfaction that the opinion expressed in your Lordship's despatch to Sir Andrew Buchanan, respecting the Convention of St. Petersburgh, coincided with that which he himself entertained of that act.

Copies of that despatch, and of your Lordship's despatch to Lord Napier, his Excellency added, would be sent to the French Ambassadors at Berlin and St. Petersburgh, and they would be invited, in remarking to them that the language of Her Majesty's Government was in general harmony with the language prescribed to them, to continue to act upon the instructions which they had received.

M Drouyn de Lhuys said further, that he should send to the Emperor's Representatives at Berlin and St. Petersburgh, a despatch narrating the communications whicli had passed between the Imperial Government and that of Her Majesty, with reference to the project of an identic note, together with a copy of the projected note. I have, &c.

Sari Russell. COWLEY.

No. 73.—Mr. Grey to Earl Russell.—(Received March 7.) My Loed, Paris, March 6, 1863.

I Saw M. Drouyn de Lhuys this afternoon, and although not instructed to do so by your Lordship, I informed his Excellency that Her Majesty's Government were of opinion that the next step to be taken in the Polish question would be to invite the chief Powers who signed the Treaty of Vienna to concur in advising Eussia to recur to the stipulations, and to revert to the policy, of the Treaty of Vienna in regard to Poland.

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