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· No. 153.-Lord Napier to Earl Russell.—(Received April 14.) MY LORD,
St. Petersburgh, April 6, 1863. THE Vice-Chancellor requested me to call on him this afternoon. His Excellency showed me a despatch which he had addressed to the Russian Minister at Madrid, in reply to the instructions placed in his Excellency's hands by the Spanish Chargé d'Affaires here, as reported to your Lordship in my despatch of the 1st April.
In his reply to the Spanish letter, the Vice-Chancellor remarks that the experience of the Government of Her Catholic Majesty must have shown them that the first duty of every Government, in the event of insurrection, is to restore authority, and to protect peaceful citizens in their lives and property and their industry; but that after the cessation of resistance, it was the purpose of the Emperor to use that clemency which was so congenial to Her Majesty's character. The tone of the letter is, on the whole, friendly.
I asked Prince Gortchakoff whether he had made any reply to the representations of the Italian Government. The Vice. Chancellor replied that the verbal remarks of Marquis Pepoli had been so slight and occasional that he had hardly thought himself called upon to take much notice of them.
He had observed to the Italian Representative that the Government of Russia did not interfere in the affairs of Italy. I asked Prince Gortchakoff whether Marquis Pepoli had not recommended the restoration of representative institutions in Poland. The ViceChancellor answered that the Italian Minister might have spoken in that sense, but his reflections were of a very informal character.
I have, &c.
No. 154.-Lord Napier to Earl Russell.—(Received April 14.) MY LORD,
St. Petersburgh, April 6, 1563. The Vice-Chancellor obligingly showed me this afternoon a letter from Baron Brunnow, in which his Excellency comments upon the operations of the Poles in England and of their partizans. Baron Brunnow reports that recruiting is openly carried on at various localities in London for the Polish cause, and that vessels are reported to be fitting out in the Mersey, one I presume at Liverpool, the other at Birkenhead, with cargoes of arms ostensibly for America, but really for the Baltic. The Polish recruits are concentrated at Gravesend.
Baron Brunnow also furnishes the Vice-Chancellor with the names of several English gentlemen who had formed themselves
into a Committee on behalf of the Polish movement. These gentlemen, however, did not appear to me to be a very influential body.
Prince Gortchakoff was not able to inform me of the actual departure of more than one vessel from England on a hostile adventure, that, viz., of the Ward Jackson, which, as your Lordship is aware, has been detained in Sweden. His Excellency remarked that he conceived Her Majesty's Government might surely interfere with greater energy to prevent recruiting, but he did not express himself with any resentment or impatience on the subject, having no doubt in view the inexorable deliberation and impartiality of our laws.
I have, &c. Earl Russell.
No. 157.-Earl Cowley to Earl Russell.—(Received April 15.) (Extract.)
Paris, April 14, 1863. I CALLED yesterday upon M. Drouyn de Lhuys for the purpose of ascertaining two points:
First, whether the knowledge that the Russian Government had promised an amnesty to the Poles who should return to their allegiance before the 1st of May, old style, with an assurance that the Emperor would maintain the new institutions which he had lately granted to Poland, had made any difference in the opinion of the French Government with respect to the transmission to St. Petersburgh of the 3 despatches from the British, French, and Austrian Cabinets.
Secondly, whether any communication has been made to his Excellency from Vienna, requesting that the 3 notes to be addressed to Prince Gortchakoff by the Representatives of Great Britain, France, and Russia, covering copies of the said despatches, should be in the first person, instead of the third, as originally agreed to.
With respect to the first point M. Drouyn de Lhuys said that the promise of an amnesty was nothing new; that the Emperor of Russia had from the first declared that he would grant one whenever circumstances would permit of it; but he (M. Drouyn de Lhuys) must remark, that on the day on which the Ukase of amnesty had been signed, there had appeared another at St. Petersburgh, putting a sequester on the property of those who had joined the insurrection. Then as to the new institutions which were to be maintained, his Excellency must observe that it was under these very institutions that the obnoxious act of conscription which had led to the present insurrection had been perpetrated. There was nothing, therefore, in these promises which in his opinion rendered the transmission of the 3 despatches less desirable than before.
As to the alteration suggested by Count Rechberg in the note of transmission, M. Drouyn de Lhuys said that he had heard [1862–63. LII.]
nothing of it, but that whether the note was to be written in the first or third person was the same to him.
Later in the day his Excellency wrote to me to say that the Duc de Gramont had apprized him of Count Rechberg's wish, and he had therefore authorized the Duc de Montebello to adopt the forniula of the Austrian Chargé d'Affaires. Earl Russell.
No. 158.-Lord Bloomfield to Earl Russell.-(Received April 16.) MY LORD,
Vienna, April 14, 1863. THE active participation of foreigners in the Polish movement has seriously attracted the attention of the Austrian authorities, and the Governor of Galicia has issued a notice warning Austrian subjects against taking part in the insurrection, and assisting the emissaries of revolution.
I have the honour to inclose, for your Lordship's information, a translation, by Mr. Barrington, of this notice.
I have, &c. Earl Russell.
(Inclosure.)--Notice published at Lemberg by Count Mensdorff Pouilly, Governor of Galicia, April 10, 1863.
(Translation.) FOREIGNERS are mostly occupied here with increased zeal on behalf of the insurrection in Russian Poland, in recruiting men, raising money, and affording other means of resistance.
But Austrian subjects too take part in these proceedings, either by actively assisting these emissaries of the revolution or else, if not themselves engaged, by forwarding material support to the insurgents.
The Provincial Government, finding that the warning published on the 15th of March last has not been generally observed, now imposes the duty upon its agents to put a stop to these illegal proceedings by all the means at their disposal, and by the exercise of the utmost rigour of the law, in order to preserve both the population and the country from useless sacrifices.
No. 160.—Lord Napier to Earl Russell.—(Received April 18.) MY LORD,
St. Petersburgh, April 12, 1863. The official newspaper of this morning contains the inclosed Manifesto offering a free pardon to all parties who have been concerned in the recent insurrection in Poland, saving those who shall continue in arms after the list of May next. The only exceptions specified are persons guilty of other crimes, or such as have violated their military duty.
The maintenance of the institutions recently granted to Poland in all their integrity is promised, and the Emperor reserves to himself the duty of developing those institutions hereafter in conformity with the wants of the times and the country.
A separate Ukase offers a similar amnesty to parties engaged in the disorders within the boundaries of the Western Governments of Russia. From the phraseology of the Decree some doubt might arise as to whether the proffered amnesty be intended to apply to those who have already been delivered over to justice, or only to those who are still in arms, and who may come in before the expiration of the term of grace. One of my colleagues informs me, however, that he knows from competent authority that the amnesty is intended to apply to both classes alike.
The Imperial Manifesto is conceived in a tone of humanity and clemency which is congenial to the character of the Emperor ; a religious physiognomy is given to it, which we are familiar with in Russian documents of State ; the sense of it is undoubtedly con. sistent with the interests of the Imperial Cabinet and with the wishes of Her Majesty's Government. We may regret that the discontents in Poland are simply referred to the instigations of foreign or exiled revolutionary agents—a statement which cannot be sincere, even on the part of the most zealous Russian; and that no mention is made of the military recruitment, which was the proximate provocation of the late revolt. The Russian Government might have used a bolder sincerity with advantage; they might have avowed an error which they feel, and have promised a remedy which they have in view.
This act of mercy has been appropriately promulgated on Easter Sunday. How far it has been prompted by the expectation of foreign intervention, I am not able to affirm with confidence. I am inclined to think that it may have been accelerated by such apprehensions, but it is also plainly consistent with policy, as well as with the benevolent disposition of the Sovereign. I have, &c. Earl Russell.
(Inclosure.)-Extract from the “Journal de St. Pétersbourg" of
March 80 and 81, 1863
St. Pétersbourg, le 31 Mars, 1863.
Manifeste Impérial. Des la première nouvelle des désordres survenus dans le Royaume de Pologne, nous avons suivis l'impulsion de notre cour en déclarant que nous ne rendions pas la nation Polonaise responsable d'une agitation furneste surtout à elle-même. Nous ne l'avons attribuée qu'aux excitations préparées depuis longtemps hors du pays par quelques individus auxquels de longues années d'une vie
errante ont fait contracter des habitudes de désordre, de violence, et de complots ténébreux qui ont perverti chez eux les sentiments élevés d'amour pour l'humanité, et même inspiré la pensée de souiller
le crime l'honneur national. Ces manifestations d'un autre âge, depuis longtemps condamnées par les arrêts de l'histoire, ne s'accordent plus avec l'esprit de notre époque. La génération actuelle doit avoir pour but de fonder le bien-être du pays, non par des torrents de sang, mais dans la voie du progrès pacifique.
C'est le but que nous nous sommes tracé lorsque, confiant dans la protection divine, nous avons fait devant Dieu et notre conscience le serment de consacrer notre vie au bonheur de nos peuples.
Mais pour accomplir dans toute son étendue ce serment, qui nous demeurera toujours sacré, nous avons besoin de l'assistance de tous les hommes de bien sincèrement dévoués à leur patrie et qui placent leur dévouement non dans des calculs intéressés ou des tentatives criminelles, mais dans le maintien du repos public, sous la sauvegarde des lois.
Dans notre sollicitude pour l'avenir du pays, nous sommes prêts à vouer à l'oubli tous les actes passés de rébellion. En conséquence, désirant ardemment mettre un terme à une effusion de
aussi stérile pour les uns qu'elle est pénible pour les autres, nous accordons un pardon entier à tous ceux de nos sujets du Royaume impliqués dans les derniers troubles, qui n'auraient point encouru de responsabilité pour d'autres crimes ou des délits commis au service dans les rangs de notre armée, et qui jusqu'à la date du is Mai déposeront les armes et rentreront dans l'obéissance. C'est sur nous que repose l'obligation de préserver le pays
du retour de ces agitations désordonnées et d'ouvrir une ère nouvelle à sa vie politique. Elle ne peut s'inaugurer que par une organisation rationnelle de l'autonomie administrative locale, comme fondement de tout l'édifice.
Nous en avons posé les bases dans les institutions octroyées par nous au Royaume; mais, à notre sincère regret, le résultat n'a pas encore pu en être soumis à l'épreuve de l'expérience, par suite des instigations qui ont substitué des entraînements chimériques aux conditions d'ordre public sans lesquelles nulle réforme n'est possible.
En maintenant encore aujourd'hui ces institutions dans leur intégrité, nous nous réservons, lorsqu'elles auront été éprouvées dans la pratique, de procéder à leur développement ultérieur selon les besoins du temps et ceux du pays. Ce n'est que par la confiance qu'il témoignera dans nos intentions que le Royaume de Pologue pourra effacer les traces des malheurs actuels et marcher sûrement vers le but que notre sollicitude lui assigne. Nous invoquons l'assist