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11-7-52

THE

LONDON ENCYCLOPÆDIA. .

- 3 1 Ер

THALES, a celebrated Greek philosopher, 2. T. flavum, the coinınon meadow rue, has a and the first of the seven wise men of Greece, leafy furrowed stalk, and a manifold erect panicle. was born at Miletus about 640 B.C. Thales It has commonly twenty-four stamina, and from acquired great reputation by his wisdom and ten to sixteen pistils. The root and leaves of learning; he was the first among the Greeks who this plant dye a yellow color, and cattle are fond foretold eclipses of the sun, and made extraordi- of it. It grows on the banks of some rivers. nary discoveries in astronomy. Thales was the 3. T. minus, or small meadow rue, has sexauthor of the Ionian sect of philosophers, who partite leaves, and bending flowers. The stalk were thus called, from his being born at Miletus, is striated, and about a foot high ; the leaves are a city of Ionia. He maintained that water was lax and divaricated, having rigid foot-stalks ; they the principle of which all the bodies in the uni- are smooth and glaucous, and their lobes geneverse are composed ; that the world was the rally trifid ; the panicle is branched and open, work of God; and that God sees the most secret and the flowers nod; the petals are pale green, thoughts in the heart of man. Thales went to tinged with red; the stamina are from fifteen 16 see Čræsus, who was marching with a powerful twenty; the seeds deeply striated, and from two army into Cappadocia, and enabled him to pass to seven in number. This plant is frequent in the Halys without making a bridge. He died sandy soils and mountainous pastures. soon after, at about ninety years of age. He THALLAND, a province of Sweden, called composed several treatises in verse, on meteors, also Dalea and Dalia, which see. the equinoxes, &c., but they are all lost.

THAMAS Kouli Kuan, or Nadir Shah, the Thales, another celebrated Greek philoso- murderer and successor of the preceding mopher, a native of Gorthynia. See Crete. narch, a bloody monster. He began his bloody

THALESTRIS, a queen of the Amazons, career with the murder of his own uncle, whose who came, attended by 300 women, fifteen days' fort and territories he seized. See Delhi, India, journey to meet Alexander, during his expedition and Persia. into Asia, that she might raise up a race of THAME, a market-town in the hundred of heroes by so great a man.-Q. Curt. vi. c. 5. Thame, Oxon, pleasantly seated on an eminence Strabo, 11. Justin, c. 4.

on the banks of the Thame, thirteen miles east from THALIA, in pagan mythology, one of the Oxford, and forty-five north-west of London. nine muses. She presided over Comedy; and The parish contains about 4600 acres of land, is represented crowned with a garland of ivy, and is divided into six hamlets or liberties. The holding a mask in her hand, and wearing buskins town consists of one long and spacious street, on her feet. See Muses.

in the centre of which is a capacious marketThalia, in botany, a genus of plants belong- place, and the church is a good Gothic structure. ing to the class monandria, and order of mono- It has a town-hall, a free-school, an alms-house, gynia; and in the natural system ranging under and several other charitable institutions. In the eighth order, scitamineæ. The corolla is 1138 Alexander, bishop of Lincoln, erected a pentapetalous and undulated ; and the drupe monastery here, which, at the general dissoluhas a bilocular kernel. There is only one spe- tion, was given to the duke of Somerset. The cies, viz. T. geniculata.

river is navigable for barges to the Thames at THALICTRUM, meadow rue, in botany, a Dorchester. The market on Tuesday is well genus of plants belonging to the class of polyan- supplied with corn and cattle. Fairs Easter dria, and order of polygynia ; and in the natural Tuesday, and Old Michaelmas-day. It is a visystem ranging under the twenty-sixth order, carage, with Tetsworth, Towersey, and Syddenmultisiliquæ. There is no calyx; the petals are ham churches annexed. Population 2500. four or five in number, and the seeds are naked T'HAME, a river which rises on the eastern side and without a tail. There are fifteen species, of Bucks, near Ivinghoe, crosses that county, three of which are indigenous, viz.

and falls into the Thames at Dorchester, in Ox1. T. alpinum, or alpine meadow rue, has a fordshire. very simple stalk, and almost naked ; and a THAMES, the most remarkable river in Engracemus simple and terminal. It is a pretty land, particularly as connected with the comlittle plant, about a finger's length in height; the merce of the metropolis, and navigable from its leaves all rise from the root, the stalks being mouth to Letchlade, in Gloucestershire, a disnaked and branched; the flowers nod, and have tance of 230 miles. The tide flows as high as four petals, twelve stamina, and eight pistils. It Richmond in Surrey, more than seventy miles is frequent on the sides of riv ts, in the high- from the ocean. From the depth of water at land mountains, and other places.

London, which is capable of navigating the VOL. XXII.- Part 1.

B

largest ships, the metropolis is one of the greatest bridges and highways in proper repair. This
commercial ports in the universe. The real wa- title of thane was abolished in England at the
ter is exceedingly wholesome; and abounds with conquest, upon the introduction of the feudal
a variety of fish. Its banks, westward from the system by William I. The titles of earl and
metropolis, are ornamented with the most bean- baron were about the same period introduced
tiful villas and pleasure grounds, and in its into Scotland by Malcolm Canmore, and the
course it is joined by numerous rivers and title of thane fell into disuse.
streams, particularly the Kennet, Loddon, Coln, THANET, Isle of, a celebrated part of the
Charwell, Tame, Isis, Wey, Mole, Wandle, Lea, county of Kent, lying on the south shore of the
Roding, Darent, Medway, &c.; it is also joined Thames, ten miles in length, from the North-
by several navigable canals, viz. the Grand Junc- Foreland to Saar Bridge, and eight miles across
tion canal, at Brentford ; the Oxford and War- from Westgate to Sandwich Ferry. It is sepa-
wick canal, at Oxford ; and the Thames and rated from the rest of the county by a narrow
Severn canal, at Letchlade; forming a connected channel of the Stour, and contains ten parishes,
chain of inland navigation throughout the whole to which there are now only seven churches. On
of the kingdom.

this Isle are the popular bathing places of MarThames, a river of Connecticut, which is gate, Ramsgate, and Broadstairs. The soil is formed by the Shetucket and Yantic, at Nor- particularly fertile in grain and all the ordinary wich, and flows south into Long Island Sound, crops ; and in the south and west parts are extwo miles below New London. It is navigable cellent pasture and marsh-lands, on which large through its whole course.

numbers of sheep and cattle are fattened. The THAN, adv. Sax. 8anne. A particle placed climate is remarkably dry and salubrious. in comparison after the comparative adjective or THANK, v. a. & n. s. Sax. Šancian; Belg. adverb, noting a less degree of the quality com- THANKFUL, adj. danck; Goth. thank. pared in the word that follows than : as, monar- THANK'FULLY, adv.

To

return acknow. chy is better than anarchy.

THANK'FULNESS, n. s. ledgments: the acWere we not better to fall once with virtue, THANK'LESS, adj. knowledgment reThan draw a wretched and dishonoured breath? THANK'LESSNESS, n. S. turned (often used in Ben Jonson. THANK'OFFERING,

the plural): thankful I never met with a more unhappy conjuncture of

THANKSGIVING, is grateful; ready to affairs, than in the business of that unfortunate earl. THANK'WORTHY, adj. acknowledge a favor :

King Charles.

the adverb and noun substantive corresponding: More true delight in that small ground,

thankless, ungrateful; not likely or deserving to Than in possessing all the earth was found.

Daniel.

gain thanks: the noun substantive that follows I love you for nothing more than for the just es- corresponding: the compounds are of obvious teem you have for all the sons of Adam. Swift.

meaning THANE, n.8. Sax. degn. An old title of Be thankful unto him, and bless his name.

Psalm c. 4. honor, perhaps equivalent o baron.

Of old there were songs of praise and thanksgiving By Sinel's death I know I'm thane of Glamis ;

unto God.

Nehemiah vii. 46.
But how of Cawdor? the thane of Cawdor lives.

He took bread, and gave thanks to God in presence
Shakspeare.
of them all.

Acts xxvii. 35. THANE (Lat. thanus) was a title formerly We thank God always for you. 2 Thess. i. 3. given to the nobility in Britain. It signifies a This is thankworthy, if a man endure grief. minister or honorable retainer, from the verb

| Pet. ii. 19. thenian, to minister. There were several degrees A thankful remembrance of his death. of nobility among the Anglo-Saxons; but those

Common Prayer. most commonly mentioned are the king's thanes He scarcely would give me thanks for what I had and the alderman's thanes. The king's thanes done, for fear that thankfulness might have an intro

duction of reward. seem to have been of three different degrees, ac

Sidney. cording to their different degrees of wealth or

Lest so great good as he for her had wrought,

Should die unknown, and buried be in thankless favor at court. The alderman's thanes seem to

thought.

Spenser. have been of the lowest degree of nobility, and These sacred hymns Christianity hath peculiar to next to them those who were promoted to that itself, the other being songs too of praise and thanksdignity from their advancement in the church, giving, wherewith as we serve God, so the Jews likefrom their valor, success in agriculture or com

Hooker. merce : for if a ceorl or farmer applied to learn

That she may feel ing and attained to priest's orders; if he acquit- How sharper than a serpent's tooth it is, ted himself so well as to obtain from a noble- To have a thankless child. Shakspeare. King Lear. man five hythes of land, or a gilt sword, helmet, Will you give me this maid your daughter ? and breast-plate, the reward of his valor; or if -As freely, son, as God did give, her me. by his industry he had acquired the property of

-Sweet prince, you learn me noble thankfulness.

Shakspeare. five hythes of land; or if he applied to trade,

The forlorn soldier, that so nobly fought, and made three voyages beyond sea in a ship of He would have well become this place, and graced his own, and a cargo belonging to himself—he The chunkings of a king. Id. Cymbeline. was denominated a thane. The thanes were

For your stubborn answer obliged to attend the king with their followers The king shall know it, and, no doubt, thank you. in military expeditions, to assist in building and

Shakspeure. defending the royal castles, and in keeping the The poorest service is repaid with thanks. Id.

wise.

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Here is better than the open air; take it thunk- THARUS, in ornithology, the Chilese eagle. fully.

Id. See Falco. Some embrace suits which never mean to deal ef

THASOS, or Tuasus, an island in the Ægean fectually in them; but they will win a thank, or take Sea, anciently called Æthria, famous for its gold a reward.

Bacon.

mines; with a town so named. In favour, to use men with much difference is

Thascs, a brother of Cadmus, whom he acgood; for it maketh the persons preferred more thank

Id. Essays.

companied in search of Europa. ful, and the rest more officious,

Apollod. 3. If love be compelled, and cannot chuse,

THAT, pron. & conj. Saxon där; Gothic How can it grateful or thankworthy prove? Davies.

thata ; Dut. dat. Not this, but the other; which; Not t' have written then, seems little less

who; what ; such as; the thing : as a conjuncThan worst of civil vices, thanklessness. Donne. tion, because; noting consequence or final end.

The contracting and extending the lines and Yet, for all that, when they be in the land of their sense of others, if the first authors might speak for enemies I will not cast them away. themselves, would appear a thankless office. Wotton.

Leviticus xxvi. 44. Wage still their wars,

The Nazarite hath vowed, besides that that his And bring home on thy breast more thankless scars. hand shall get.

Numbers vi. 21. Crashau.

They said, What is that to us? see thou to that. The celebration of these holy mysteries being

Matthew. ended, retire with all thankfulness of heart for having Ye defraud, and that your brethren. 1 Cor. iv. 8. been admitted to that heavenly feast. Taylor. The sinner makes an aberration from the scope or For this to the infinitely good we owe

mark that is set before him.

Perkins. Immortal thanks.

Milton.

Things are preached not in that they are taught, Ill fare our ancestor impure ! but in that they are published.

Hooker. For this we may thank Adam.

Id.

Octavia, not only that,
We should acknowledge our obligations to God That were excusable, that and thousands more
for the many favours we receive, by continual praises Of semblable import, but he hath waged
and thanksgiving.

Tillotson.
New wars against Pompey.

Shakspeare. Out of gold, how to draw as many distinct sub- I'll know your business, that I will. Id. Henry IV. stances as I can separate from vitriol, I shall very Sir, I think the meat wants that I have, thankfully learn.

Boyle. --Basting.

Id. Comedy of Errours. Live, thou great encourager of arts;

We answered, that we held it so agreeable, as we Live ever in our thankful hearts. Dryden. both forgot dangers past and fears to come, that we Weigh the danger with the doubtful bliss,

thought an hour spent with him was worth years of And thank yourself, if aught should fall amiss. Id.

our former life.

Bacon's New Atlantis. If you have lived, take thankfully the past ; In the midst of this darkness they saw so much Make, as you can, the sweet remembrance last. Id.

light, as to believe that when they died they went Thankfulness and submission make us happy. immediately to the stars.

Heylyn. L'Estrange. This is that Jonathan, the joy and grace, The common practice of all Christian churches That Jonathan, in whom does mixt remain and states, in appointing and keeping days of public All that fond mother's wish.

Cowley. ihanksgiving and humiliation, is argument sufficient

They weep, as if they meant to prove, that in the common sense of Christians it That way at leasi proud Nabas to prevent. is not forbidden in scripture.

Nelson. In this scale gold, in t'other fame does lie, One grateful woman to thy fame supplied The weight of that mounts this so high. Id. What a whole thankless land to his denied. Pope. He made that art which was a rage.

Id. That Portugal hath yet no more than a suspen- Forgive me that I thus your patience wrong. ld. sion of arms, they may thank themselves, because I have shewed before, that a mere possibility to the they came so late into the treaty; and, that they contrary can by no means hinder a thing from being came so late, they may thank the Whigs, whose false highly credible.

Wilkins. representations they believed.

Swift. It is not that I love you less A thousand thankofferings are due to that provi- Than when before your feet I lay ; dence which has delivered our nation from these ab- But to prevent the sad increase surd iniquities. Watts. Of hopeless love, I keep away.

Taller. THAPSIA, the deadly carrot, in botany, a

By religion is meant a living up to those princi. genus of plants belonging to the class of pentan- and to live as becomes those who believe a God and

is, to act conformably to our best reason, dria, and order of digynia ; and in the natural

a future state.

Tillotson. system ranging under the forty-fifth order, um

This runick subject will occur upon that of poetry. bellatæ. The fruit is oblong, and girt with a

Temple. membrane. There are five species:–T.asclepium, This is not fair; por profitable that ; fætida, garganica, trifoliata, and villosa. The roots Nor t’ other question proper for debate. of the fætida were formerly ordered in medicine,

Dryden's Persius. but are now entirely disused ; a small dose ope- The custom and familiarity of these tongues do rating with extreme violence both upwards and sometimes so far influence the expressions in these downwards.

epistles, that one may observe the force of the He

Locke. THAPSUS, a town of Africa Proper, where brew conjugations. Scipio and Juba were defeated by Julius Cæsar

We must direct our prayers to right ends; and that Liv. 29, c. 30.

either in respect of the prayer itself, or the things THARGELIA, in Grecian antiquity, festivals

we pray for.

Duty of Man.

Saints that taught and led the way to heaven. in honor of Apollo and Diana.

Tickle. THAROPS, the father of Oeagrus and grand- What is inviting in this sort of poetry proceeds father of Orpheus. Bacchus made him king of not so much from the idea of a country life itself, as Thrace. Diod. 4.

from that of its tranquillity.

Pore.

Id.

ples, that

THATCII, n. s. & v. n.)

Sax, face, straw,

Burnished steel, that cast a glare
Thatch'er, n. s. (Skinner), from dac, From far, and seemed to thau the freezing air. Id.

. a roof; in Isl. thak.-Lye. Straw laid upon the

O solitude ! romantick maid top of a house to keep out the weather : to

Whether by nodding towers you tread, cover as with straw: one whose trade is thus to

Or climb the Ande's clifted side, cover houses.

Or by the Nile's coy source abide,

Or, starting from a half year's sleep,
Make false hair, and thatch

From Hecla view the thawing deep,
Your poor thin roofs with burthens of the dead.

Thee, fond nymph! again I woo,

Shakspeare.
Moss groweth chiefy upon ridges of houses liled And again thy steps pursue.

Grainger.

When thowes dissolve the snawy hoord, or thatched.

Bacon's Natural History.
Then Rome was poor, and there you might be. Then water-kelpies haunt the foord,

An' float the jinglin icy-boord,
hold

Burns. The palace thatched with straw.

Dryden.

By your direction. Ash is universal timber; it serves the soldier, THAWING (from thaw), the resolution of ice seaman, carpenter, thatcher, and husbandman. into its former fluid state by the warmth of the

Mortimer. air. See CONGELATION, and Frost. Hard by a stye, beneath a roof of thatch,

THAXTED, a market-town and parish in
Dwelt Obloquy, who in her early days

Dunmow hundred, Essex, near the rise of the
Baskets of fish at Billingsgate did watch,
Cod, whiting, oyster, mackrel, sprat, or plaise.

Chelmer, six miles from Dunmow, and forty

seven north-east of London. The manufacture

Pope. Sonnets or elegies to Chloris

of cutlery was formerly carried on here to a great Might raise a house above iwo stories :

extent. The church is a neat and spacious GoA lyric ode would slate, a catch

thic building, with a tower and lofty spire, and Would tile, an epigram would thatch. Swift. the Dissenters and Quakers have neat meetingYou merit new employments daily ;

houses. It was formerly a borough, and much Our thatcher, ditcier, gardener, baily. Id. more considerable than at present.

Here are A plough boy, who has never seen any thing but alms-houses, a school, and other charities. thatched houses, naturally imagines that thatch be- Market on Friday. Fairs, Monday before Whitlongs to the very nature of a house. Watts.

Sunday, and August 10th. Then came rosy Health from her cottage of thatch,

THE, article. Sax. de, de; Belg. de; Teut. Where never physician had lifted the latch. Smart.

die. The definite article, sometimes used by way THAUMANTIAS, in mythology, a name of consequential reference, and often abridged of Iris, the goddess of the rain-bow; from her in poetry and in pronunciation. father Thaumas.

Your son has paid a soldier's debt : THAUMAS, a son of Oceanus and Terra, who He only lived but till he was a man; married Electra, by whom he had Iris, the Har- The which no sooner had his prowess confirmed, pies, &c.

In the unshrinking station where he fought, THAUMASIUS, a mountain of Arcadia, the But like a man he died. Shakspeare. Vacbeth. birth-place of Jupiter according to the poets.

Who had the especial engines been to rear

Daniel. THAW, v. n., v. a., & n. s. Sax. Šapan; Teutonic His fortunes up into the state they were. thau. To grow liquid after congelation; melt;

Unhappy slave, and pupil to a bell, remit frost: to melt what was congealed: the Unhappy till the last the kind releasing knell.

Cowley. act of doing so: liquefaction of something that

The adorning thee with so much art has been congealed; the warmth that liquefies. Is but a barb'rous skill : My love is thawed,

'Tis like the pois'ning of a dart, Which, like a waxen image 'gainst a fire,

Too apt before to kill.

Id. Bears no impression of the thing it was. Shakspeare. In this scale gold, in other fame does lie. Id.

A man of ray kidney, that am as subject to heat He put him in mind of the long pretence he had as butter; a man of continual dissolution and thaw. to be groom of the bed-chamber, for the which he

Id. could not chuse but say that he had the queen's proI was the prince's jester, and duller than a great mise.

Clarendon. thaw. Id. Much Ado About Nothing.

The fruit When thy melted maid

Of that forbidden tree, whose mortal taste His letter at thy pillow hath laid :

Brought death into the world.

Hilton. If thou begin'st to thaw for this,

As all the considerable governments among the May my name step in.

Donne.

Alps are commonwealths, so it is a constitution the That cold couniry where discourse doth freeze in most adapted of any to the poverty of these counthe air all winter, and may be heard in the next sum- tries.

Addison on Italy. mer, or at a great thaw.

The longer sin bath kept possession of the heart, Wilkins's Mathematical Magick. the harder it will be to drive it out. Duty of Man. Hardens his stubborn heart, but still as ice

Night shades the groves, and all in silence lie,
More hardened after thaw.

Milton. All but the mournful Philomel and I. Pope.
It on firm land

THEATINES, a religious order in the Romish
Thaws not, but gathers heap, and ruin seems
Of ancient pile, all else deep snow and ice.

church, so called from their principal founder,

Id. Having let that ice thaw of itself, and frozen the John Peter Caraffa, the bishop of Theate, or liquor a second time, we could not discern any thing. Chieti, in the kingdom of Naples, and afterwards

Boyle.

pope under the name of Paul IV. The names When sharp frosts had long constrained the earth, of the other founders were Gaetan, Boniface, A kindly thaw unlocks it with cold rain,

and Consiglieri. These four pious men, desiring Finst the tender blade peeps.

Dryden. to reform the ecclesiastical state, laid the foun

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