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205
205–206
206
206
207
207
207

519
519
520
520

521
521

522
522

522
522-523
523

523
523

523
523

.

524
524
524
524

CHALMERS (M. D.)—continued.

Chalmers (M. D.) Reply

Codification
Crossing dividend warrants
Dishonouring undated cheques
Bills payable at bank
Days of grace

“ Persons apparently entitled”
Notes on the Bills of Exchange Act, 1882

The Act the first successful attempt at codification
Remarks on progress of the measure
The select Committee of Commons
Memoranda received by Committee from Associations and Authorities

concerned
Extension of Bill to Scotland
Section 51, preserving old Scotch rule that a Bill operates as assignment

of funds in favour of holder from time when presented to drawee
Difference of English and Scotch phraseology in regard to terms
Parliamentary services of Sir John Lubbock and Sir Farrer Herschell in

respect of the Bill
The Bill, under charge of Lord Bramwell, in the Lords
Lords' select Committee

amendment to mitigate common law rule, according to which, if
bank on which cheque was drawn, failed before cheque was

presented, drawer was discharged
Provisions reproducing rules of law which may require alteration :

days of grace, and distinction between statutory and common law

holidays
Act adapted for amendment :
Discussion on Mr. Chalmers' Paper
Steel (Mr.).

Advantage of codification as preliminary to amendment
Alterations in law required .
difference of English and foreign laiv, in case of

acceptance
refused
meaning of “ not negotiable"*

days of grace and bank holidays
Venn (Mr.)

Matters in which the Act does not fulfil requirements of foreign
law
presentation of foreign Bilis which have already been
presented for acceptance
protest on foreign promissory note

impracticability of clause 48 as to "notice"
Billinghurst (Mr.).

Clearness of the Act, with the exception of Clause 100
Examination and comments on Clauses
Amendments desirable : abolition of days of grace, and making
maturity of Bills payable on holidays uniform

proposed by Institute of Bankers : that drawer of Bill shall not
be discharged by holders' omission to present, unless

drawer suffer damage through delay
Brett (Mr.) .

Alteration in law with regard to protest for non-payment of

foreign bills
Measure of damages (re-exchange and interest) upon dishonoured

bill
Bastable (Mr.)

“Not negotiable” cheques
Cheques paid into bank become property of banker
Can banker insist on second or third continuous endorsement on

cheque?
Lubbock (Sir John)

524
525
525
525

525

525
526
526
526
526
532-540

527

527
527

527

527
528
528
528

528-529

529

The Act a codification of the law with amendments added in Com-

mittee
Question of blank endorsement
Points brought forward by Mr. Venn with regard to foreign law
Question of re-exchange, dealt with by Mr. Brett

529
529
529
530

PAGE.

unaltered

531

531
531
531-532

265
265
266
266
266
267
267

.

.

CHALMERS (M. D.)—continued.
Chalmers (Mr.) Reply

531
Meaning of “not negotiable," and why the phrase remained
Statutory and common law holidays should be put on the same
footing
Points brought forward by Mr. Venn with regard to foreign law

Protection to bankers against forged endorsement
Notes on the Indian Negotiable Instruments Act

265
Its effect on English bankers and houses
The Act as a code
International bearing of the Act

protest for dishonour

conditional acceptances.
Endorsement of cheques to order

Limitation of the Act.
“The (Indian) Negotiable Instruments Act, 1881,” &c., notice 232
Opinion on case regarding bankers' lien on securities

175-177
regarding bankers' protection against forgery

564
CHARTERS, Royal Bank of Scotland

125
British Linen Company

130
National Banks of United States

412, 493
CHEQUES, to bearer, endorsement of, in Scotland

163, 169, 170
country clearing

90
rules for

98
crossed.

199
law of, (Bills of Exchange Act, 1882)

485

399-400
certification of, in United States .

414, 417

494
proportion to Notes and Coin, in United States

106-107
drawn by Trustees in Bankruptcy, exemption from Stamp Duty 179
not negotiable,” cashing of

109
law of (Bills of Exchange Act, 1882)

484, 486
meaning of

525, 528, 531
undated

200, 206
law relating to (Bills of Exchange Act, 1882)

484-486
Legal decisions-
to bearer, held as security for bill and dishonoured

233-239
post-dated, bankruptcy of Payee before date of

284-295
Questions with Answers of the Council-
Crossed, effect of returning unpaid

109
with special endorsement, as to paying

over the
counter

567
dishonoured, returning .

41
drawn abroad, stamps on

214
regarded as Bills of Exchange

214
endorsement, successive

213
forged, liability of banker

213
special, cheque stolen, liability of banker

362
Per pro on Poor Law Union

40–41
sufficient discharge

567
power of drawee to refuse payment for purpose
of confirmation

567
forged, recovery of

108
banker's protection against, case submitted to Counsel,
with their opinion thereon

564-566
“not negotiable," cashing of

109
signature : by partner of firm, presented after his decease, as
to payment of

362

.

CHEQUES, Questions, 8c., signature-continued.

limited liability company, signed by directors, counter-

signed by clerk, as to payment

566

letter of authority for another to sign, as to stamp

necessary.

501

drawn to order in ordinary way, with addition of words,

“ in full settlement," in reference to payee, banker's

position, and power to return cheque

attached to bill, which is unstamped, as to payment

361-362

presented by loan office styling itself a bank, as to payment of

500

written in pencil, payment of

109

see Clearing.

CINCHONA, in India, as field for capital

251

CLEARING' HOUSE, operations of, are not barter.

13-14

London Bankers' (see Barnett).

89

61, 117, 187,

Returns (weekly)

241, 295, 367,

451, 511, 513,

515, 517,587,

Nov. 2, 1881, to Oct. 25, 1882

594

Country

90, 98

used by Scotch banks

167

Edinburgh, rules of

157-161

Manchester Bankers'

222-226

New York

552-556

CLEARING SYSTEM in Scotland

267-270

in Ireland

270-272

in Colonies

272-277

in United States (see Barnett)

551

Coin, proportion to notes and cheques, in United States

106-107

COINAGE ACT, 1870, text of

336-344

COINAGE,

Annual Report of Deputy-Master of Mint, for the year 1881 420-423

Our Gold, an enquiry into its present defective condition, with

a view to its reform (see Martin)

297

International Monetary Conference, 1881 (see Fremantle and

Mallet)

424, 432

Duodecimal system

80

310, 311, 313,

Wear of

328, 330,

349-351,

353, 357

English, Offa

66

Alfred the Great :

68

William I

68

King John

69

Henry III

69, 76

Edward I

69–70, 73

regulated by the pound tower

70

Edward III.

77

Henry VII

74, 78

Henry VIII.

Edward VI

74

Philip and Mary

75

by machinery, Charles II

75

reformation of, in 1696

75-76

weight of

see Bimetallism, Gold, Silver.

COLONIES, clearing system

272-277

COMMERCE, Association of Chambers of, see Association.

74,75

70

PAGE.

.

COMMERCIAL BANK OF SCOTLAND, origin and growth of

135-136
COMMISSION (Royal) on International coinage, 1868 .

302
COMPANIES (Joint Stock) Acts, suggested amendment

227
COMPANY, limited liability, shares as security of advance, questions

(1) as to notice, (2) bankers' lien, (3) liability (with answers) 262-263
COMPTROLLER, National Banks of United States of America

387
CONFERENCE, International Monetary, 1881, (see Fremantle and
Mallet)

424-436
61, 117, 187,

241, 295, 367,
Consols, price of, (weekly Returns)

451, 511, 513,

515, 517. 587
CONTROL of National Banks of United States of America

387
CONVERTIBILITY of notes in Scotland

210-212
COTTON Trade in India as field for capital

252
COUNCIL, Institute of Bankers, Report of, read at Fourth Annual
Meeting

369-380
elected at Fourth Annual Meeting

376
COUNTRY CHEQUES, clearing

90
rules for

98
NOTES, suggested Clearing of

100-101
COUPONS, of bonds, with banker, question of lien

175-176
CRAWFORD (F. Marion) " Our Silver,” in proceedings of American
Bankers' Association, notice

35-37
CROSS, the, on penny coins

69, 86
CRUMP (Arthur) "A Review of the Position and Prophecies of the
Bimetallists,” notice

279
CURRENCY, of United States, Report of Comptroller of

105-107

.

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DECISIONS, see Legal Decisions.
DEEDS, deposited with banker, question of his lien on

175-176
DENARIUS, the

64
DEPOSITS, rise of, in Scotland

133-134
of Scotch banks (tables)

146–147
“ DIARY of an Edinburgh banker in 1745”.

129
42, 60, 115,

186, 240, 294,
DISCOUNT, changes in Bank rates of .

366, 450,
510-517,

586-594
DIVIDEND AND Bonus, Bank of Scotland, on capital (table)

155-156

157
DIVIDEND WARRANTS, with banker, question of lien (with answer) : 175-176
payable to two or more payees, question as to endorsement of
(with answer)

212
crossing of

202, 206, 208
section of Bills of Exchange Act, 1882, relating to

490
DIVIDENDS, National Banks of United States

402-403, 407
Scotch Banks

124, 127,

1 143, 155
DOUGLAS, Heron & Co., failure of

132
DUBLIN clearing .

270
DUODECIMAL system of coinage

80

EASTERLING, origin of sterling .
EDINBURGH, Rules for exchanges and settlements between

Clearing House Rules .

65, 70, 83, 87

157-159
159-161

63

PAGE.
EDINBURGH-continued.

Questions with Answers of the Council-
ENDORSEMENT

267,528, 529,

531-532
and re-indorsement of bills, legal decision.

110-114

453-492,
law relating to (see Bills of Exchange Act)

528-529,

531-532
Questions with Answers of the Council-
of two or more payees

212
forged, liability of banker :

213
protection of banker, case submitted to Connsei
thereon, and their opinion

564-566
successive endorsees- liability of banker

213
of bills, as to payment when it differs and when per pro,
without banker's guarantee

501
stolen cheque, liability of banker

362
per pro, sufficient discharge ; power to refuse payment 567
per pro, on Poor Law Union Cheques

40-41
of promissory notes, liability of

41
EQUIVALENT COMPANY, origin of Royal Bank of Scotland

124-125
Essay, Prize, subject and conditions for

518
Evans (John). L. S. D., or the Origin of Pounds, Shillings and
Pence

63
Meaning of the letters £ s. d.
Depreciation

63-64
Origin and development of the penny

64
Roman denarius

64
decimal divisional division altered to sixteen

64
the as and its duodecimal division

64
etymology of penny

64
Saxon penny

64-65
"sterling" derived from Easterling

65, 70
weight of silver penny.

65, 70
origin of English penny

66
stycas and sceattas

66
penny coined by Offa

66-67
- Alfred the Great.

67-68
first coinage of halfpenny

68
penny of William I

68
Saxon moneyers and mints

66, 68
number of mints at end of 11th century

68
coinage under John

68
use of double cross for cutting

69
coinage of halfpence and farthings

69
penny of Edward I

69
number of mints under Edward I

69
weight of coinage

70
pound
tower and pound troy :

70
pennyweight

64, 70
variations in weight from Edward I to Elizabeth
first copper pennies

70
copper halfpennies

71, 72
Elizabeth's tokens and silver coinage

71
farthing tokens of James I and Charles I.

71
tradesmen's tokens

71
tokens during Commonwealth and Charles II

71
Evelyn on tokens

71-72
tokens suppressed 1672, and copper halfpence and farthings coinedi

72
Queen Anne farthings

73
revival of tokens
Origin and development of the shilling

73
derivation of shilling

73
Saxon shilling only used in accounts, not coined

73
groats

73
shilling first coined by Henry VII :

74
shilling of Henry VIII, or testoons

74
shillings of Edward VI.

75
reform in coinage by Edward VI

75

.

73

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