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obtained, or (6) when presentment is excused and the bill is over. due and unpaid.

(2.) Subject to the provisions of this Act, when a bill is dishonoured by non-payment, an immediate right of recourse against the drawer and indorsers accrues to the holder.

Notice of Dishonour anil Etject of Non-notice. 48. Subject to the provisions of this Act, when a bill has been dishonoured by non-acceptance or by non-payment, notice of dishonour must be given to the drawer and each indorser, and any drawer or indorser to whom such notice is not given is discharged; Provided that

(1.) Where a bill is dishonoured by non-acceptance, and notice of dishonour is not given, the rights of a holder in due course subsequent to the omission, shall not be prejudiced by the omission.

(2.) Where a bill is dishonoured by non-acceptance and due notice of dishonour is given, it shall not be necessary to give notice of a subsequent dishonour by nonpayment, unless the bill shall in the meantime have been accepted.

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Rules as to Notice of Dishonour. 49. Notice of dishonour in order to be valid and effectual must be given in accordance with the following rules :

(1.) The notice must be given by or on behalf of the holder, or by or on behalf of an indorser who, at the time of giving it, is himself liable on the bill.

(2.) Notice of dishonour may be given by an agent either in his own name, or in the name of any party entitled to give notice, whether that party be his principal or not.

(3.) Where the notice is given by or on behalf of the holder, it enures for the benefit of all subsequent holders and all prior indorsers who have a right of recourse against the party to whom it is given.

(4.) Where notice is given by or on behalf of an indorser entitled to give notice as hereinbefore provided, it enures for the benefit of the holder and all indorsers subsequent to the party to whom notice is given.

(5.) The notice may be given in writing or by personal communication, and may be given in any terms which sufficiently identify the bill, and intimate that the bill has been dishonoured by nonacceptance or non-payment.

(6.) The return of a dishonoured bill to the drawer or an indorser is, in point of form, deemed a sufficient notice of dishonour.

(7.) A written notice need not be signed, and an insufficient written notice may be supplementel and validated by verbal communication. A misdescription of the bill shall not vitiate the notice unless the party to whom the notice is given is in fact misled thereby.

(8.) Where notice of dishonour is required to be given to any person, it may be given either to the party himself, or to his agent in that behalf.

(9.) Where the drawer or indorser is dead, and the party giving notice knows it, the notice must be given to a personal representative if such there be, and with the exercise of reasonable diligence he can be found.

(10.) Where the drawer or indorser is bankrupt, notice may be given either to the party himself or to the trustee.

(11.) Where there are two or more drawers or indorsers who are not partners, notice must be given to each of them, unless one of them has authority to receive such notice for the others.

(12.) The notice may be given as soon as the bill is dishonoured and must be given within a reasonable time thereafter.

In the absence of special circumstances notice is not deemed to have been given within a reasonable time, unless :(a.) Where the person giving and the person to receive notice

reside in the same place, the notice is given or sent off in time to reach the latter on the day after the dishonour of

the bill. (6.) Where the person giving and the person to receive notice

reside in different places, the notice is sent off on the day after the dishonour of the bill

, if there be a post at a convenient hour on that day, and if there be no such post on that day

then by the next post thereafter. (13.) Where a bill when dishonoured is in the hands of an agent, he may either himself give notice to the parties liable on the bill, or he may give notice to his principal. If he give notice to his principal, he must do so within the same time as if he were the holder, and the principal upon receipt of such notice has himself the same time for giving notice as if the agent had been an independent holder.

(14.) Where a party to a bill receives due notice of dishonour, he has after the receipt of such notice the same period of time for giving notice to antecedent parties that the holder has after the dishonour.

(15.) Where a notice of dishonour is duly addressed and posted, the sender is deemed to have given due notice of dishonour, not: withstanding any miscarriage by the post-office.

Eccuses for Non-notice and Delay. 60. (1.) Delay in giving notice of dishonour is excused where the delay is caused by circumstances beyond the control of the party

giving notice, and not imputable to his default, misconduct or negligence. When the cause of delay ceases to operate the notice must be given with reasonable diligence.

(2.) Notice of dishonour is dispensed with (a.) When, after the exercise of reasonable diligence, notice as

required by this Act cannot be given to or does not reach the

drawer or indorser sought to be charged : (6.) By waiver express or implied. Notice of dishonour may be

waived before the time of giving notice has arrived, or after

the omission to give due notice: (c.) As regards the drawer in the following cases, namely,

(1) where drawer and drawee are the same person, (2) where the drawee is a fictitious person or a person not having capacity to contract, (3) where the drawer is the person to whom the bill is presented for payment, (4) where the drawee or acceptor is as between himself and the drawer under no obligation to accept or pay the bill, (5) where the drawer has

countermanded payment : (d.) As regards the indorser in the following cases, namely, (1)

where the drawee is a fictitious person or a person not having capacity to contract and the indorser was aware of the fact at the time he indorsed the bill, (2) where the indorser is the person to whom the bill is presented for payment, (3) where tho bill was accepted or made for his accommodation.

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Noting or Protest of Bill. 51, (1.) Where an inland bill has been dishonoured it may, if the holder think fit, be noted for non-acceptance or non-payment, as the case may be; but it shall not be necessary to note or protest any such bill in order to preserve the recourse against the drawer or indorser.

(2.) Where a foreign bill, appearing on the face of it to be such, has been dishonoured by non-acceptance it must be duly protested for non-acceptance, and where such a bill, which has not been previously dishonoured by non-acceptance, is dishonoured by nonpayment it must be duly protested for non-payment. If it be not so protested the drawer ard indorsers are discharged. Where a bill does not appear on the face of it to be a foreign bill, protest thereof in case of dishonour is unnecessary.

(3.) A bill which has been protested for non-acceptance may bo subsequently protested for non-payment.

(4.) Subject to the provisions of this Act, when a bill is noted or protested, it must be noted on the day of its dishonour. When a bill has been duly noted, the protest may be subsequently extended as of the date of the noting.

(5.) Where the acceptor of a bill becomes bankrupt or insolvent or suspends payment before it matures, the holder may cause the bill to be protested for better security against the drawer and indorsers.

(6.) A bill must be protested at the place where it is dishonoured : Provided that (a.) When a bill is presented through the post office, and returned

by post dishonoured, it may be protested at the place to which it is returned and on the day of its return if received during business hours, and if not received during business hours, then

not later than the next business day: (6.) When a bill drawn payable at the place of business or

residence of some person other than the drawee, has been dishonoured by non-acceptance, it must be protested for nonpayment at the place where it is expressed to be payable, and no further presentment for payment to, or demand on,

the drawee is necessary. (7.) A protest must contain a copy of the bill, and must be signed by the notary making it, and must specify(a.) The person at whose request the bill is protested : (6.) The place and date of protest, the cause

or reason for protesting the bill, the demand made, and the answer given, if any, or the fact that the drawee or acceptor could not be

found. (8.) Where a bill is lost or destroyed, or is wrongly detained from the person entitled to hold it, protest may be made on a copy or written particulars thereof.

(9.) Protest is dispensed with by any circumstance which would dispense with notice of dishonour. Delay in noting or protesting is excused when the delay is caused by circumstances beyond the control of the holder, and not imputable to his default, misconduct, or negligence. When the cause of delay ceases to operate the bill must be noted or protested with reasonable diligence.

Duties of Holder as regards Drawes or Acceptor. 52.-(1.) When a bill is accepted generally presentment for payment is not necessary in order to render the acceptor liable.

(2.) When by the terms of a qualified acceptance presentment for payment is required, the acceptor, in the absence of an express stipulation to that effect, is not discharged by the omission to present the bill for payment on the day that it matures

(3.) In order to render the acceptor of a bill liable it is not necessary to protest it, or that notice of dishonour should be given to him.

(4.) Where the holder of a bill presents it for payment, he shall exhibit the bill to the person from whom he demands payment, and when a bill is paid the holder shall forthwith deliver it up to the party paying it

LIABILITIES OF PARTIES.

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Funds in Hands of Drawee. 53.-(1.) A bill, of itself, does not operate as an assignment of funds in the hands of the drawee available for the payment thereof, and the drawee of a bill who does not accept as required by this Act is not liable on the instrument. This sub-section shall not extend to Scotland.

(2.) In Scotland, where the drawee of a bill has in his hands funds available for the payment thereof, the bill operates as an assignment of the sum for which it is drawn in favour of the holder, from the time when the bill is presented to the drawee.

Liability of Acceptor. 54. The acceptor of a bill, by accepting it

(1.) Engages that he will pay it according to the tenor of his acceptance :

(2.) Is precluded from denying to a holder in due course : (a.) The existence of the drawer, the genuineness of his signature,

and his capacity and authority to draw the bill; (5.) In the case of a bill payable to drawer's order, the then

capacity of the drawer to indorse, but not tho genuineness or

validity of his indorsement; (c.) In the case of a bill payable to the order of a third

person, the existence of the payee and his then capacity to indorse, but not the genuineness or validity of his indorsement.

Liability of Drawer or Indorser. 55.-(1.) The drawer of a bill by drawing it(n.) Engages that on due presentment it shall be accepted and

paid according to its tenor, and that if it be dishonoured he will compensate the holder or any indorser who is compelled to pay it, provided that the requisite proceedings on dishonour

be duly taken; (6.) Is precluded from denying to a holder in due course the

existence of the payee and his then capacity to indorse. (2.) The indorser of a bill by indorsing it(a.) Engages that on duo presentment it shall be accepted and

paid according to its tenor, and that if it be dishonoured he will compensate the holder or a subsequent indorser who is compelled to pay it, provided that the requisite proceedings on

dishonour be duly taken; (6.) Is precluded from denying to a holder in due course the

genuineness and regularity in all respects of the drawer's signature and all previous indorsements;

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